22 SES 12 B, Paper Session
The overall purpose of this study is to design and evaluate an interactive learning resource in order to facilitate, strengthen and improve the learning of the core of research, namely scientific methods. Both research (cf. Ding et al. 2016 a,b) and national evaluations (Universitets- och kanslersämbetet, 2019), as well as proven experience show that the most difficult part for university students is generally the science methodology and completing a thesis writing in a satisfactory way. A relevant question is how students' learning can be facilitated in the research process. A review of 50 textbooks (8000 pages) in scientific method shows that they contained approximately 97% text and 3% pictures or illustrations (Boström & Sjöström, 2021). Since the educational landscape today is increasingly focusing on design for learning with the purpose to create a sustainable way of learning, multimodal forms of representations could afford better opportunities to learn, and partly blend into today's digital structures. In educational contexts, visual expressions have great potential as didactic tools in all subjects. Academic studies and academic work increasingly require multimodal competencies, and universities and colleges must be able to offer these to students and researchers. The intended learning resource reinforces visual support for learning in the form of representative illustrations and visualizations of the structural constitution of the research process. but also includes a dynamic presentation and learning in several layers. The dynamic presentation includes a framework of the totality of the research process describing connections and order between the process steps and their boundary conditions¸ as well as their respective meaning and associated actions. Insights into the different steps of the research process are organized as problem-based learning in the form of targeted tasks linked to the respective process steps and boundary conditions, by which the students describe their own research and build up the research process in its entirety.
Q1. How to design and evaluate an interactive visualization based learning resourcefor scientific methods which could be used independently of time and space?
The objectives for this study is i) to create a learning resource useful both in teaching as a supplement for students and researchers, as well as on an individual level, and ii) to continuously evaluate the artifact considering both pedagogical and technical aspects in order to create a useful learning resource.
In this study, we analyzed the results using two comprehensive frameworks for the integration of technology support in learning: Substitution, Augmentation, Modification Redefinition (SAMR) (Puentedura, 2006) and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) (Koehler & Mishra, 2009). The former framework contributed with a taxonomy in the discussion of how well the technological possibilities were utilized in teaching materials and in learning activities. The latter, TPACK-framework developed to offer an understanding of what aspects of knowledge may be operational when teachers integrate technologies for teaching and learning. The latter,offer an understanding of what aspects of knowledge may be operational when teachers integrate technologies for teaching and learning. It is useful when analyzing teachers reasoning, knowledge, educational designs and practical use of digital technologies and in this research the use of technologies for visual learning support and visualization.
Design science research (DSR) typically involves the creation of an artifact and/or design theory as a means to improve the current state of practice as well as existing research knowledge (Baskerville, et al. 2018). It consists of two activities, build and evaluate. These activities are performed iteratively before the final artifact is produced (Hevner et al. 2004). The iteration implies that the build and evaluate processes are repeated until the final design for the artifact has been achieved (Johannesson, & Perjons, 2014). We have chosen such an iterative research approach that is used in design science, which according to Oates (2006) is called design and creation. The approach implies to build and evaluate an interactive learning resource based on visual support and visualizations of a structured knowledge. It will render a practical artifact and demonstrate its advantage in a learning context, but also to reflect on design theory contributions and iterative evaluations. In the iterative evaluations we used diagnostic assessment (focus group of teachers and experts), formative assessment (experts, students, teachers) and summative assessment (students, teachers). Data from evaluations were analysed through a hybrid content analysis in an interativ process (Fereday, & Muir-Cochrane, 2006) to assure a quality development of the artifact.
Thera are a couple of expected and integrated outcomes. Firstly, a learning resource about scientific methods is produced that offers students alternative forms of representations of the subject content. This could result in positive changes in motivation, learning, commitment and scientific results for the students. Secondly, the learning resource could strengthen and develop digital study and working environment both for students and teachers. This as a supplement to traditional teaching materials and we see the possibility that students can use it in their home environment as well. From a pedagogical perspective, this is a unique and different educational material offering students an overview of the totality of the research process, where connections and order between the process' steps and boundary conditions, such as philosophy of science, theory, society and the researcher himself, is presented. More flexible ways of learning scientific methods could counteract dropouts and increase the throughput of the educations as well as lead to better quality and more publications. This is a project that can be called technology-supported learning and it aims to take advantage of and develop the possibilities of digitalization. This as an important step in strengthening, developing and supplementing the integrated knowledge environment that is emerging in the borderland between interactions, visual pedagogy, and visualizations. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the field of design for learning, where a learning resource is designed and developed at the interface between visual pedagogy, visualization, digitization and technology with pedagogical frameworks for evaluation of usability, development and technological improvements
Baskerville, R, Baiyere, A., Gregor, S., Hevner, A.& Matti Rossi, M. (2018). Design Science Research Contributions: Finding a Balance between Artifact and Theory. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 19(5), 358-376 doi: 10.17705/1jais.00495 Boström, L. & Sjöström, M. (2021). A review of scientific literature with respect to forms of representation. Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University (in progress) Ding, L. Wei, X & Liu, X (2016a). Variations in University Students’ Scientific Reasoning Skills Across Majors, Years, and Types of Institutions, Research Science Education (2016) 46:613–632 Ding, L., Wei, X. & Mollohan, K. (2016b), Does Higher Education Improve Student Scientific Reasoning Skills? International Journal of Science and Math Education (2016) 14:619–634. Fereday, J., & Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating Rigor Using Thematic Analysis: A Hybrid Approach of Inductive and Deductive Coding and Theme Development. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1), 80-92. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690600500107 Hevner, A. R. (2007). A three cycle view of design science research. Scandinavian journal of information systems, 19(2), 4. Koehler, M., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)? Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70., 9(1), 60–70. Johannesson, P. & Perjons, E. (2014). An Introduction to Design Science. New York: Springer Oates, J, B. (2006). Researching Information Systems and Computing. Hampshire: Great Britain. Puentedura, R. R. (2006). Transformation, technology, and education. Retrieved 18 January 2019, from http://hippasus.com/resources/tte/ Universitets- och kanslersämbetet (2019) [Swedish Higher Education Authority]. (UKÄ). https://www.uka.se/om-oss/aktuellt/nyheter/2019-04-16-forsta-
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