22 SES 02 A, Paper Session
The Bologna process involves the voluntary commitment of european governments and international bodies to adapt their higher education systems to face, among other things, new socio-economic constraints (Charlier, 2009 ; Teichler, 2011 ; Huisman & al. ; 2012, Almeida & al., 2019). In this context, the need to professionalize students through their university courses has led universities to look beyond the transmission of academic knowledge to work on the acquisition of so-called transversal skills ; skills that are essential for entering the professional world (Leclercq, 2012). Transversal skills are understood to be those related to oral and written communication, to mastering the codes of the professional world, or the ability to analyze and synthesize plan and even to develop one's autonomy (IBE, 2011). Depending on the contexts, disciplines and political projects of the universities, this evolution has taken different forms (Biggs, 2014 ; Čirić, 2016).
In France, as in other countries, universities had to meet this requirement (Derouet, Normand, 2008). And this has not happened without a certain number of questions emerging, including the very competences of higher education teachers to satisfy this requirement (Romainville, Donnay, 1996). Indeed, no training outside academic knowledge was evaluated for teaching at universities and it can be lacking (Lison, Paquelin, 2019).The proposed paper reports on research that is rooted in the field of sociology of the professions (Wittorski, 2007 ; Digwall, 2008). It focuses on the professionalism of higher education teachers.
In fact, the limited resources made available to the universities force them in most cases to build on existing strengths. Thus, at the University of Paris (formerly Paris Diderot), in the field of life sciences, it is these same teachers who have set up these specific courses. To support them in their approach, they have chosen to ask me and others teachers from the education and training sciences to think about and co-facilitate these courses. While doing so, I realized how difficult it is for many of these teachers to modify the professorial posture they adopt when teaching academic subjects. Indeed, the pre-professionalism courses put the students at the centre of the activity (in reference to the active pedagogy developed in primary education) by posing problems related to the transversal skills they must develop or acquire. Such as, how to speak to an audience or how to present themselves at a job interview.
Within this framework, the teachers accompany their students in their reflection and analysis and guide them in the construction of their responses.This moves teachers from the central place in the teaching session to the background. Thus to implement this classes, the teachers themselves have also had to develop transversal skills that for some of them are muted or even non-existent (Trigwell, Prosser, 2004) . The acquisition of new postures in front of the students took shape by developing listening skills, by taking into account the student as a whole, by deferring the teacher's speech, by questioning much more, and by accepting a certain variety of positions (Gibbs & Coffey, 2004).
Based on the introduction of these specific training modules linked to the teachers' acquisition of transveral skills, I explored how teaching pre-professionalization classes could lead university teachers to change their academic teaching practices.After several years of co-teaching, I hypothesize that this evolution of the professorial posture towards the students is reflected in the courses that fall under their strict discipline. It is a question of reporting on the evolution of professionalism in higher education.
This research work is part of a qualitative approach to data analysis in the field of educational sciences and more specifically in the field of sociology of education. The study was conducted at the University of Paris during the year 2020, in the particular context of the pandemic where teachers finally met students on an intermittent basis. It was carried out in the Life Sciences department where mainly biologists work. The data collection method used two modalities. The first aimed to reach all teachers who have taught or are still teaching in the pre-professionalization modules for Bachelor of Life Sciences students, in their first, second and third years. To do this, a questionnaire was drawn up, put online and filled out remotely. It was sent to 25 teacher-researchers. The questions asked first about the respondents status (professor or lecturer), his or her seniority in the post, his or her seniority in the training system and the level at which he or she teached. The following questions explored representations of the role of the higher education teacher and the relationship to teaching the new pre-professionalism classes. Finally, it included a series of questions on the respondent's practices in dealing with students in the context of their disciplinary teaching with regard to their teaching in the context of pre-professionalization. Initially, content analysis based on flat sorting and cross-sorting enabled a general picture to be drawn up of the teachers' positioning and relationship to this new posture. This questionnaire was supplemented by five individual interviews to deepen the reflection on the evolution of the higher education teaching profession with regard to institutional expectations and the link with research. For these interviews, applied content analysis refers to a thematic analysis by categorisation. The return to the central hypothesis is the major axis used : the evolution of professors' practices in their academic teaching. However, the interviews made it possible to broaden the elements of categorization and the profiles defined.
The analysis of the collected corpus is being finalised and only the presentation of the first results is currently available for this document. All the analyses will be presented at the conference. The initial findings indicate that the respondents have committed themselves voluntarily. Either they have been approached because of affinities with those responsible for training, or they have heard about the system and wish to try it out. In this respect, they demonstrate that the university also tends to fight against the immobility in which one would like to confine it (Rege Colet, Berthiaume, 2009, 140). Most of the respondents prefer to be involved in tutorials rather than in large lecture classes. This is therefore a first indication of the relationship they wish to establish with the students in a setting where there is more proximity. In fact, the organization of the pre-professionalization modules makes it possible to work with groups of 15 to 30 students maximum. Co-teaching was mentioned as an engaging factor in the experience, making it possible to be reassured, even assured in this new posture What seems to be the most difficult for the majority of the respondents is to let the students have their say and TO give them a great deal of autonomy in the course. They tend to strongly orient the answers, sometimes even giving them with the question. The idea of "not giving lectures" since there is no scientific knowledge to pass on was a totally destabilising element. That said, for those who have been teaching pre-professionalism classes longer, the habit of distancing themselves from the typical professorial posture is real. The transposition of the posture into the biology course is real. The first results therefore indicate a possible transposition, an internalization of the different communication framework with the students.
Almeida, Ó, J. R., Viana, M., Sanches, J., & Paz, A. (2019). "Tendências recentes da investigação internacional sobre pedagogia do ensino superior: uma revisão de literatura". Revista Lusófona de Educação, 45, 201-217. Biggs J. (2014), « Constructive alignment in university teaching », HERDSA Review of Higher Education, vol. 1, July, 5-22 Charlier, J-E. (2009), "Faire du processus de Bologne un objet d'analyse", in Éducation et sociétés , 2009/2 n° 24, De Boeck Supérieur, 109-125 Čirić, N. (2016), " Overview of Didactic Methodical Organization of University Teaching by Bologna Concept of Higher Education". Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems 14(1), 52-60. Derouet J.L. & Normand R.( 2008), “French universities at a crossroad between crisis and radical reform. Towards a new academic regime ?”, n-40, 20-34 Dingwall R. (2008), Essays on professions, Aldershot : Ashgate IBE (2011), Glossary of Curriculum Terminology. Genève : UNECSO Gibbs, G. & Coffey, M. (2004). "The impact of training university teachers on their teaching skills, their approach to teaching and the approach to learning of their students". Active Learning in Higher Education 5(1), 87-100. Huisman, J., Adelman, C., Hsieh, C. & al. (2012). Europe’s Bologna process and its impact on global higher education. In D.K. Deardorff, H. de Wit, J.D. Heyl, and T. Adams (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of International Higher Education, Knight P-T., Tait J., Yorke M. (2006), "The professionnal learning of teachers in higher education". Studies in Higher Éducation, 31-3, 319-339. Lalle P., Bonnafous S. (2019), « La révolution pédagogique de l’enseignement supérieur, une universalité géographique et paradigmatique », Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres, 80 | 2019, 49-60 Leclercq E. (2012), "Enseigner le projet professionnel personnalisé : une nouvelle approche pédagogique pour les enseignants chercheurs ?", Carrefours de l’éducation, 2012-2 n°34, 161-175. Lison C., Paquelin D. (2019), "Training in Higher Education: A lever to transform Quebec universities" in La pédagogie universitaire, revue international du Ciep, n° 80, 61-70 Romainville M., Donnay J. (dir.) (1996), Enseigner à l’université, un métier qui s’apprend ? Bruxelles : De Boeck. Teichler, U. (2011), "Bologna – Motor or Stumbling Block for the Mobility and Employability of Graduates?" In: H. Schomburg and U. Teichler, eds. Employability and Mobility of Bachelor Graduates in Europe. Key Results of the Bologna Process. Rotterdam : Sense Publishers, 3-41. Trigwell K., Prosser M. (2004), "Development and Use of the Approaches of Teaching Inventory". Educational Psychology Review, 16-4, 409-424. Wittorski R. (2007), Professionnalisation et développement professionnel. Paris : L’Harmattan.
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