31 SES 11 A, Language Education in Plurilingual Europe: Professionalism, Performance, Positioning
Teaching in the language of heritage has been offered in Austria since the 1990s as so-called mother-tongue teaching. Research from this period shows that only a few teachers were explicitly qualified in language didactics and worked under precarious conditions (Çınar 1998). Due to a lack of research during the past 20 years, little is known about the current situation. Initial indications that the circumstances have not changed significantly are provided by ten expert interviews (Helfferich 2014), which were collected in November 2015 with participants of the university course "Mother Tongue Teaching: Teaching First Languages in the Context of Migration" in Linz as part of a formative course evaluation. Since there have been no findings to date on the various facets of the professional behavior of teachers of so-called mother tongue instruction in the official German-speaking countries, the data set was subjected to a secondary analysis, with special attention paid to aspects of professional competence and professional theory.
Three approaches can be distinguished in research on the teaching profession: the professional biographical approach, the structural theoretical approach, and the competence-oriented approach (Bonnet and Hericks 2014). The dominant competency-based approach is oriented toward the ability to plan and deliver instruction in class. In this approach, teaching is seen as a means of delivering a state-imposed educational program, with structures imposed by the meta-level defining and guiding the roles and actions of actors at the micro-level (Baumert & Kunter 2006, 478). Based on the assumption that professional competence of teachers manifests itself in the ability to teach, the focus of competence-oriented professional research is on the knowledge and skills considered relevant for this purpose. According to Baumert and Kunter, there is a broad consensus "that knowledge and skills - that is, declarative, procedural, and strategic knowledge - are central components of teachers' professional competence to act" (ibid., 482). In addition to professional knowledge, the model proposed by Baumert and Kunter, which has become the guiding model of professional research on the teaching profession in the official German-speaking countries in recent years, also includes motivational orientations, self-regulatory abilities, as well as beliefs and value attitudes (Baumert & Kunter 2006, 482; differentiated on beliefs and value attitudes: Calderhead 1996).
Along the models of Baumert and Kunter (2006) and Calderhead (1996), the interviews were subjected to a deductive content analysis in order to reconstruct the reported everyday professional experience and the professional self-perception of the interviewees. For this purpose, all data material was analyzed for 13 categories that largely correspond to the facets of the two models. Seven categories emerged as particularly relevant to teachers based on their frequency: - The experience of stress and self-efficacy (as facets of motivation and self-regulation), - professional self-concept, perspectives on the subject and on students and their parents (as facets of values and beliefs), - the knowledge and skills as well as - the framework of mother tongue teaching. * Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings
In our presentation we will first give a brief overview of the educational policy and school organizational framework of "mother tongue teaching" in Austria, then we will outline our data set in its specifics and finally summarize the results of our analysis and derive questions and hypotheses for further research.
Baumert, Jürgen; Kunter, Mareike (2006): Stichwort: Professionelle Kompetenz von Lehrkräften. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft 9.4 (2006), S. 469-520. Bonnet, Andreas; Hericks, Uwe (2014): Professionalisierung und Deprofessionalisierung im Lehrer/innenberuf. Ansätze und Befunde aktueller empirischer Forschung. Zeitschrift für interpretative Schul- und Unterrichtsforschung 3 (2014), S. 3-13. Calderhead, James (1996): „Teachers: Beliefs and Knowledge”. In: David Berliner, Robert C. Calfee Hrsg.): Handbook of Educational Psychology. New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 709-725. Çınar, Dilek (1998): Gleichwertige Sprachen? Muttersprachlicher Unterricht für die Kinder von Einwanderern. Innsbruck: Studienverlag.
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