05 SES 02 A, Effects of Having Been in Care and Substance Abuse
One of the affected areas of human life in 2020 was also education. In connection with the spread of the covid-19 virus, governments around the world have introduced various measures, including restriction of pupils’ physical presence in school education. Teachers, pupils, and parents thus faced new situation, namely massive and long-lasting distance education. In the Czech Republic, this situation showed up in various ways in the spring, when this restriction was a surprise for all actors in education. Teachers had to switch to online education or other forms of distance learning, pupils had to rely heavily on self-study, and parents were put in a position that they not only had to look after their children at home, but also made a significant contribution to providing education to their children. By the autumn, many actors were already much better prepared for distance learning. However, problems persist (Czech School Inspectorate, 2021).
The situation in connection with distance education in the Czech Republic has begun to be mapped by several research studies, focusing on both quantitative indicators and the qualitative side of the impacts of distance education. The studies are also specified by the findings of the Czech School Inspectorate. Those studies bring closer overview of the form of distance education, the extent of direct involvement of teachers in the process of education in the conditions of distance education, the necessary participation of parents in education process and the view of quality assessment or identified shortcomings of distance education from all actors.
Even before the specific situation in education due to the reduction of pupils' physical presence in teaching, it was possible to identify the influence of socio-economic status on pupils' educational outcomes through international surveys. This influence is reflected both in household equipment and conditions for education. It can also be identified regarding the motivation for education in connection with the attained education of parents. Some of these influences deepened during the period of restricted physical presence of pupils in education in schools, thus exacerbating the problem of socially disadvantaged pupils. Although the studies carried out in 2020 (Prokop et al., 2020; Brom et al., 2020; Švaříček et el., 2020; Czech School Inspectorate, 2020b) did not focus specifically on the issue of socially disadvantaged pupils, resp. did not directly examine the situation among pupils with low socio-economic status, conclusions for this specific group can be drawn from the studies performed. The aim of this contribution is therefore to summarize the findings related to socially disadvantaged pupils in connection with the limited physical presence of pupils in school education
In this contribution, we used information from several sources. A quick overview of the situation provided by the PAQ agency, mapping the economic situation and the impact on education from the parents’ point of view by quantitative approach using sample of about 500 respondents (Prokop et al., 2020). The next source of information is quantitative study of Brom et al. (2020), dealing with the quantification of the time required to educate students at home. Interesting approach of this study is division of pupils according to grades of primary school - 1st and 2nd grade, 3rd to 5th grade, 6th to 9th grade - and at the same time the division of households according to the education of at least one of the parents with university-education and other households. These studies are supplemented by a view of a qualitative nature in the study of Švaříček et al. (2020), which brings view on the ongoing distance learning and its evaluation from the parent's point of view on quite large (approximately 9000 respondents), although not representative, sample. The Czech School Inspectorate complements the spectrum of information with the view of school principals on the management of the situation by teachers and pupils, combining a quantitative and qualitative approach. The Czech School Inspectorate survey (2020b) was conducted by telephone interviewing of 5,000 school principals and was focused directly on managing the situation in connection with government measures in education. The second set of information is the results of the international survey PIRLS 2016 (Czech School Inspectorate, 2019a) and their secondary analysis in the submission of the Czech School Inspectorate, which discusses the effects of socio-economic status on students' results in reading and mathematical literacy. Information on the international PISA survey (Czech School Inspectorate, 2019b) can also be used, also monitoring literacies (reading, mathematics, science) and the influence of economic, social, and cultural status. Further information on the impact on pupils' performance in the field of mathematics and science is provided by the international TIMSS survey (Czech School Inspectorate, 2020a), which also relates the above results to the ICT equipment of households and schools. This information about pupils' education outcomes in the Czech Republic and the influence of various factors on these outcomes before 2020 is used to characterize starting point to analysis of socially disadvantaged pupils in the subsequent period affected by government measures in 2020.
Contribution characterises the influence of socio-economic status and the index of economic, social, and cultural status together with ICT equipment of households and schools on educational outcomes measured in reading literacy, mathematics, and science. Signification of impact of governmental measures in 2020 can be identified. Participation in the online form could be problematic, replaced by another form of distance learning, and this problem is exacerbated by the insufficient ICT equipment of households. The problem is increasing in families with more children, which is a typical characteristic of socially disadvantaged families. The problem of participation of socially disadvantaged pupils can also relate to their low motivation to learn, which could also relate to the achieved education of parents. The time required for distance education also varies, and is higher for socially disadvantaged children, possibly due to the perceived complexity of distance education and the reduction of parents' competence to provide adequate support to their children due to lower parental education. The qualitative evaluation reveals other factors such as the discomfort of managing the care of more children in the family and presence of a household member at the "home-office" at home during the time of distance education. Thus, it means the problem of cramped space in the household for the full-fledged activity of all household members. Also, the meaningfulness of the form and content of distance education can be a problem in motivation to involve both students and their parents in teaching. However, in development of the situation with the COVID-19 pandemic, or possibly any future threat leading to the implementation of measures to prevent the physical presence of pupils in teaching, it is appropriate to identify factors contributing to improve distance education, especially in relation to the risk group of socially disadvantaged pupils.
Brom, C., Lukavský, J., Greger, D., Hannemann, T., Straková, J., & Švaříček, R. (2020). Mandatory home education during the COVID-19 lockdown in the Czech Republic: A rapid survey of 1st-9th graders’ parents. Frontiers in Education, 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/ feduc.2020.00103. Czech School Inspectorate. (2019a). Sekundární analýza PIRLS 2016 [Secondary analysis of PIRLS 2016]. https://www.csicr.cz/cz/Dokumenty/Publikace/Sekundarni-analyza-PIRLS Czech School Inspectorate. (2019b). Národní zpráva: Výsledky českých žáků v PISA 2018 [National report: Results of Czech pupils in PISA 2018]. https://www.csicr.cz/cz/Dokumenty/Publikace/Mezinarodni-setreni-PISA-2018-Narodni-zprava. Czech School Inspectorate. (2020a). Národní zpráva: Mezinárodní šetření TIMSS 2019 [National report: International survey TIMSS 2019]. https://www.csicr.cz/cz/Dokumenty/Publikace/Mezinarodni-setreni-TIMSS-2019-Narodni-zprava. Czech School Inspectorate. (2020b). Tématická zpráva: Vzdělávání na dálku v základních a středních školách [Tematic Report: Distance education at primary and secondary schools]. https://www.csicr.cz/cz/Dokumenty/Tematicke-zpravy/Tematicka-zprava-Vzdelavani-na-dalku-v-ZS-a-SS. Czech School Inspectorate. (2021). Sekundární analýza: Podmínky pro distanční výuku čekých žáků v mezinárodním srovnání fSecondary analysis: Condition for distance education of Czech pupils in international comparison]. https://www.csicr.cz/cz/Dokumenty/Tematicke-zpravy/Sekundarni-analyza-Podminky-pro-distancni-vyuku-ce. Prokop, D., Hrubá, L., & Kunc, M. (2020). Ekonomické problémy domácností a distanční vzdělávání: Report z longitudinálního výzkumu Život během pandemie [Economic problems of housholds and distance education: Longitudial research report Life during pandemic]. https://drive.google.com/ file/d/1xiYSzGcptexPnACF3CiEVqMl3bfZwssm/view. Švaříček, R., Straková, J., Brom, C., Greger, D., Hannemann, T. & Lukavský, J. (2020). Spolupráce rodiny a školy v době uzavřených základních škol [Cooperation Between Family and School During the Shutdown of Primary Schools]. Studia paedagogica. vol. 25, No 3, p. 9-41. doi:10.5817/SP2020-3-1.
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