04 SES 11 B, Outcomes of Inclusive Education: Investigating Students’ Social Inclusion, Emotional Inclusion and Academic Self-Concept
Even in inclusive classrooms, children with special education needs (SEN) may have lower levels of emotional inclusion and academic self-concept, although their social inclusion may be comparable to their peers (DeVries et al., 2018; Schwab, 2015). Meanwhile, boys and girls may also experience similar perceptions of inclusion, but varying academic self-concept (Pinxten et al., 2013). Newly developed reliably short-ratings (i.e., the Perception of Inclusion Questionnaire; PIQ; Venetz et al., 2015) of these three variables may offer an insight into developmental patterns for children with and without SEN in relation to perception of inclusion and academic self-concept. The present study validates the PIQ in a novel setting and language group by looking at Swedish 5th and 8th grader in an inclusive school. We also investigate differences in emotional inclusion, social inclusion, and academic self-concept based on gender, grade level, and SEN. Participants were 5th and 8th graders in an inclusive school in Sweden (N = 195, 96 female, 97 5th graders). Included were 48 learners with diagnosed SEN. Participants filled out the PIQ (12 items on a 4-point Likert scale representing: emotional inclusion, social inclusion, and academic self-concept). The performance of the PIQ was good. The factor structure was confirmed with CFI = .94, RMSEA = .061 (90% CI: .038 – .082), and SRMR = .061. Strong invariance was also upheld in all cases, except for grade-level, which met the criteria for partial invariance by freeing a single intercept (item 2). Children with SEN had lower levels of emotional inclusion, p < p = .030. Children in grade 8 reported significantly lower levels of social inclusion, p = .041. SEN diagnoses were associated with significantly lower in academic self-concept, p = .004, respectively. Gender interacted with grade and SEN, p = .024 and p = .015, respectively. In comparison to 5th grade girls, 8th grade girls with and without SEN had a lower academic self-concept. Meanwhile, the academic self-concept of boys was consistent over across grade-level. While there is ample evidence of gender differences in academically related variables such as self-efficacy (e.g., Huang, 2013), to our knowledge, our results are the first to indicate that in comparison to their same-sex peers, girls with SEN may experience a smaller academic self-concept deficit than boys with SEN. This novel finding requires more research and validation, but the possibility of gender interactions with SEN status on academic self-concept demands more investigation.
DeVries, J. M., Voß, S., & Gebhardt, M. (2018). Do learners with special education needs really feel included? Evidence from the Perception of Inclusion Questionnaire and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 83, 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2018.07.007 Huang, C. (2013). Gender differences in academic self-efficacy: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(1), 1–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10212-011-0097-y Pinxten, M., Fraine, B. de, van Damme, J., & D'Haenens, E. (2013). Student achievement and academic self-concept among secondary students in Flanders: gender and changes over time. Irish Educational Studies, 32(2), 157–178. https://doi.org/10.1080/03323315.2012.749058 Schwab, S. (2015). Social dimensions of inclusion in education of 4th and 7th grade pupils in inclusive and regular classes: Outcomes from Austria. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 43-44, 72–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2015.06.005 Venetz, M., Zurbriggen, C. L. A., Eckhart,, M., Schwab, S., & Hessels, M. G. P. (2015). The Perceptions of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ). Retrieved from https://piqinfo.ch/
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