13 SES 16 A, The Paradox of Public Education: A European Exploration
In the light of the current changes, school is perceived less and less as a public good, serving the development of not only individuals but also of entire societies enriched by the public and equal access to education. Announcing ‘the end of school’ is a commonplace practice (ref. 5, 3, 12), but it is not unambiguous. I argue that the prophecies of ‘the end of school’ are currently disrupted and there are varied and co-existing school ontologies. I describe three ontologies that grasp this disruption (ref.2,4,7). First is drawn by the path of privatization and it can be represented by actions for profit, dragging means from the public to the non-public sphere. This ontology of privatization can be represented by the phenomenon of charterization in the USA, where public good becomes a profitable business that takes public moneys but escapes public control (ref. 1,6,8,9). In Poland it is called “creeping privatization” that operates across the public sector slowly but efficiently (ref.11). Another ontology develops in rural areas. Threatened with liquidation by local authorities, small schools are often saved by local associations. Their ownership is transferred to closed groups of individuals forming such associations. However, they still provide impulse for development, affect local communities, and maintain a democratic way of exercising power (ref.10). ‘The end of school’ in this version presents the ontology of soft privatization. The third is a hybrid ontology which can be represented by urban schools newly built by local governments with intention to be operated by privately owned non-profit organizations. The recent introduction of child benefits in Poland, with a simultaneous school reform that dramatically deteriorated their conditions, results in rapid increase in private schooling. The PiS ruling party is thus increasing class inequalities in education, replacing the policy of social cohesion with that of national identity. Schools still exist and, in diverse ways, still are public. A factor that unites their ontologies is that teachers that are silent victims of their transformation. Privatization, hard, soft and hybrid, concerned or unconcerned with public good, allows for teachers being employed irrespective of union regulations (bigger workload, unpaid paid holidays etc). Scarce funding of publicly owned schools and - as in Poland - an open fight against the old elites (depreciation of judges, artists or teachers, etc.) and building new elites that promote subordination to power rather than competence, make teachers’ work unbearable.
Buras K.L. (2015): Charter schools, race, and urban space: where the market meets grassroots resistance, New York: Routledge Dziemianowicz-Bąk, A., Dzierzgowski, J. (2014). Likwidacja szkół oraz przekazywanie stowarzyszeniom. Warszawa: IBE. Giroux, H. (2015). Education and the Crisis of Public Values. New York: Peter Lang. Herczyński, J., Sobotka, A. (2013). Diagnoza zmian w sieci szkół 2007-2012. Warszawa: IBE Hursh, D.W. (2015). The End of Public Schools. The Corporate Reform Agenda to Privatize Education. New York: Routledge. Lipman P. (2011): The new political economy of urban education: Neoliberalism, race, and the right to the city, New York: Routledge Mendel M. (2018): The End of School? Educational leaders for public good in times of privatization (In) Leading and Managing for Development. Roman Dorczak (ed.) Krakow: Jagiellonian University Molnar A. (2005): School Commercialism: From Democratic Ideal to Market Commodity, New York: Routledge Ravitch D. (2013): Reign of Error: The Hoax of Privatization Movement and the Danger to America’s Public Schools, New York: Random House Rutkowska,A. (2015). Mały cud oświatowy. Chowanna, 1, 88. Sześciłło, D. (2013). Rynek, prywatyzacja, interes publiczny. Warszawa: Scholar Uryga, D. (2017). Zmierzch publicznej oświaty samorządowej. Pedagogika Społeczna, 1(63), 47-65
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
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Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
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Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
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Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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