30 ONLINE 25 A, ESE in formal education
MeetingID: 845 7773 4324 Code: 7K6YQ9
Curricular learning experiences outside the classroom, known as out-of-school learning, give students significant chances of observations as visually detectable change of processes (Blaseio, 2015), but are becoming fewer as experiences are increasingly replaced by information and communication technology (ICT). ICT is omnipresent in the life of children, thus needs to be targeted with pedagogical expertise in academic settings. Our interdisciplinary research project transMINT4.0 aims to interlink out-of-school learning and ICT as incorporated instruments for sustainable optimization and successful transition of science and technology learning in STEM education from primary to secondary school. transMINT4.0 intends to positively influence the educational biography in STEM of primary and secondary school students. With view on agreed sustainable development goals of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development by all United Nations member states, content of our project focuses on “renewable energies – focus on wind energy” and “resource-conserving use of water”.
Out-of-school learning gives students the possibility of authentic experiences with phenomena of their environment, which cannot be brought into the classroom, for instance a river. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research on the effects of out-of-school learning experiences, yet, few existing studies emphasize the importance of out-of-school learning in science class (e.g., Guderian, 2007; Orion, 1993). According to Guderian (2007), curricular learning experiences outside the classroom can prompt a catch-impulse for students which arouses further interest in the matter. Orion (1993) illustrates a popular guide for successful implementation of outdoor learning and highlights the relevance of out-of-school learning as an essential component for science class. National curricula and guidelines highlight the importance of learning experiences outside the classroom as didactical and methodological approach in STEM education. Teaching media competencies is also highlighted in curricula as a vital criterion in student education.
Published TIMSS results from 2019 (Schwippert et al., 2020) confirm that Germany still has a considerable need to optimize basic science education at the primary level: In addition to the slight decline in the overall level of scientific literacy, the greater dispersion with an increase in students at the lower two levels of competency is particularly noteworthy. More than half of German children currently have to cope with the transition to secondary school with deficient scientific competencies at the end of primary school.
Further, research results show, that German students lack basal competencies in computer and information literacy (CIL). The omnipresence of ICT in children’s environment is mainly out of academic context and highlights that frequent usage does not automatically qualify for correct digital media use (cf. Eickelmann et al., 2019).
Financial subsidies by the German government have hardly increased and improved digital infrastructure of schools but lack desired effects (cf. Eickelmann et al., 2019). Availability of technical equipment does not automatically encompass qualified CIL of students. Efforts by the German government to foster ICT and CIL of primary and secondary school students have hardly developed over the years and bear the risk of losing international connectivity and competitiveness.
The purpose of science class is to help children understand and act in the world around them, which is increasingly captured by ICT, thus needs to become a part of education. To date, German science class (in primary school) does only dissatisfactory fulfill its educational mandate for a comprehensive ICT and CIL education in order to lay the foundation for a substantial digital media competence of students which guarantees for a seamless compatibility in society after school.
Due to insufficient and adequate implementation of ICT and out-of-school learning, our research project transMINT4.0 interlinks these two important pillars of science class in order to qualify primary and secondary school students for targeted STEM education.
According to a Design-Based-Research (DBR) approach, transMINT4.0 develops, tests, and evaluates digitally supported teaching and learning offers in STEM education for students on the transition from primary to secondary school. The project plans a close science-practice cooperation with the involvement of classroom-based and out-of-school learning locations and institutions. With the help of stakeholders, we aim to determine and develop sustainable competencies and interest in STEM education of students, and therefore master academical transitional problems from primary to secondary school. The interconnected research- and development-related design of transMINT4.0 uses a mixed-methods-based combination of quantitative and qualitative survey and evaluation procedures. The quasi-experimental comparative group design of transMINT4.0 investigates primary school students’ development in STEM education. Using a pre-post knowledge test, transMINT4.0 examines differences of out-of-school learning vs. classroom learning on following sub-topics of education for sustainable developments: (1) “renewable energies - focus on wind energy" and (2) "resource-conserving use of water". With the help of a longitudinal study design, participating primary school students will be followed up in secondary school and further questioned about their subject-specific and cross-curricular STEM development. At the entrance level of secondary school, use and effect of voluntary and extra-curricular STEM offerings from the internal STEM-cluster of the transMINT4.0 project (e.g., student labs) will be evaluated. Qualitative study designs, such as interviews and logbook surveys, and semi-structured observations during the implementation of the offerings will be used in order to document, develop, and optimize conditions of success in STEM education of students. At this level of connection between primary and secondary education, the DBR-typical science-practice cooperation is particularly effective. Here, the findings and conditions for success of the teaching-learning offers developed and tested in primary and secondary school are merged. In the final step of transMINT4.0, preliminary findings of cross-sectionally and longitudinally investigations will be combined to develop scientific and technical learning opportunities in STEM education of primary and secondary school students. With the support of stakeholders, teachers, and multipliers, new modules across school levels will be developed with the involvement of non-school education partners and students in the higher grades as tutors, who will offer digital support on the topic of sustainable development education. Eventually, we plan to adapt knowledge of the research results of transMINT4.0 in teacher programs of university in order to qualify prospective teachers of STEM education at primary and secondary schools effectively.
Educational learning at out-of-school locations gives opportunities for different types of learning. Action-oriented activities that are geared towards exploratory learning and that offer students a variety of access options and activate them cognitively have potential conditions for success in science and technology learning, even in the case of complex topics (Blumberg, 2017). On-hand problem-solving and action-oriented and situated learning tasks with authentic phenomena offer students special settings outside their mundane classroom environment. Out-of-school learning locations are particularly motivating and cognitively stimulating in STEM education. Teachers see the main benefits in extracurricular activities, especially out-of-school learning, in real-world, action-oriented science learning combined with an increase in interest of the students (e.g., Henriksson, 2018), which is empirically proven (e.g., Füz, 2018) Primary school students even register a higher interest and curiosity regarding science theories (cf. Schiefer et al., 2020). Due to present research results, we assume that primary school students participating in out-of-school learning develop a higher technical competence, especially in the transfer of skills and knowledge, a greater interest, and a more pronounced intrinsic motivation, as well as more positive self-centered assessments than primary school students who learn exclusively in the classroom. Further, transMINT4.0 also assumes to improve students’ deficient STEM biographies in science learning with a decline in interest and in perceptions of understanding and interest-enhancing characteristics at the transition from primary to secondary school (Möller, 2014). Ultimately, we aim to improve ICT and CIL of students at primary and secondary schools.
Blaseio, B. (2015). Das schnelle Methoden 1*1: Sachuntericht [The fast methods 101: Science class]. Berlin: Cornelsen. Blumberg, E. (2017). Konsequenzen aus naturwissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen für das Alltagshandeln ableiten – Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien – Solarthermie [Derive consequences from scientific findings for everyday actions - Use of renewable energies - Solar thermal energy]. In: H. Giest (Hrsg.): Die naturwissenschaftliche Perspektive konkret [The natural science perspective in concrete terms] (pp. 53-66). Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt. Eickelmann, B., Bos, W., Gerick, J., Goldhammer, F., Schaumburg, H., Schwippert, K., Senkbeil, M., & Vahrenhold, J. (2019). ICILS 2018 #Deutschland: Computer- und informationsbezogene Kompetenzen von Schülerinnen und Schülern im zweiten internationalen Vergleich und Kompetenzen im Bereich Computational Thinking [ICILS 2018#Germany: Computer and information-related competencies of students in the second international comparison and competencies in computational thinking.]. Münster: Waxmann Verlag. Füz, N. (2018). Out-of-School Learning in Hungarian Primary Education: Practice and Barriers. Journal of Experiential Education 2018, Vol. 41(3) 277–294. Guderian, P. (2007). Wirksamkeitsanalyse außerschulischer Lernorte. Dissertation [Effectiveness analysis of extracurricular learning sites. Dissertation]. Berlin: Humboldt-Universität. Henriksson, A.-C. (2018). Primary school teachers’ perceptions of out of school learning within science education. LUMAT: International Journal on Math, Science and Technology Education, 6(2), 9–26. Möller, K. (2014). Vom naturwissenschaftlichen Sachunterricht zum Fachunterricht – Der Übergang von der Grundschule in die weiterführende Schule [From Science Teaching to Subject Teaching - The Transition from Elementary to Secondary School]. ZfDN, 20, 33-43. Orion, N. (1993). A Model for the Development and Implementation of Field Trips as an Integral Part of the Science Curriculum. In: School Science and Mathematics, Band 93(6):S. 325–331 Schiefer, J., Golle, J., Tibus, M., Herbein, E., Gindele, V., Trautwein, U., & Oschatz, K. (2020). Effects of an extracurricular science intervention on elementary school children's epistemic beliefs: A randomized controlled trial. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 382-402.
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