23 SES 05 A, Education, Social Inequalities and Gender II
Why gender mainstreaming?
Gender mainstreaming in education, work and employment has since the 1990s been on the agenda of ILO, UNESCO (Beijing conference 1995) and of the European Union and its member state politics (EU 1996). ‘The (re)organisation, improvement, development and evaluation of policy processes, so that a gender equality perspective is incorporated in all policies at all levels and at all stages, by the actors normally involved in policy-making’ (Council of Europe, 1998). ‘A gender perspective on education and employment should pay attention to gender parity ... in education and should incorporate a gender perspective in all policies and programmes ... Attention should also be paid to gender-aware educational environments and to educational segregation. ...(P)olicies focused on the labour market need to be screened so that they counterbalance tendencies towards occupational segregation. ... (G)ender equality needs to be mainstreamed into macroeconomic policies, policies and regulations on unpaid care work, and decision-making in private governance. In all gender mainstreaming practices, women’s voices must be included.’ (GENDER MAINSTREAMING)In the Nordic countries, national initiatives to gender equality boosted since the late 1960s and have gradually become part of educational and employment legislation.
The organizational practices and individual experiences may not, however, follow the assumptions behind mainstreaming policies, legislation and formal indicators. The unconscious, culturally and historically embedded ways of gendering are often not perceived. This has typically been characterized as gender-blindness. (Rantalaiho et al 1997.) While the gap between policy discourse and individual experiences has grown during the Europeanisation, it is questionable if the dominant indicators on gender mainstreaming – enrolment, incomes, institutional representation etc. – are appropriate for understanding the transforming patterns and meanings of gendering in the realities of education, work and employment (marketization, individualization, precarization), connected to changes of family and social relations. The actual diversities and dynamics of gendering – e.g. emergence of caring manliness and career motherhood - are widely ignored in the mainstreaming policies. Until recently gender mainstreaming politics and educational research have stressed the inclusion of women´s voices. More comprehensive understanding of shifts in gender relations and their implications to equality, require, however, approaches, which analyze gendering as a relational process and practice. (Heikkinen 2009.)
The presentation is based on four empirical researches, which study relations between individual experience, changes in working life and implementation of gender mainstreaming politics in Finnish educational and occupational environment.
EU commission 1996. Incorporating equal opportunities for women and men into all community policies and activities. European Council 1998. Gender mainstreaming: Conceptual framework, methodology and presentation of good practices. Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 1998. GENDER MAINSTREAMING IN EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT, no date, http://roentgen.etf.eu.int/pubmgmt.nsf/(getAttachment)/B0E04DDF3BF831FFC12572830051F3C4/$File/NOTE6YFEXE.pdf. Heikkinen, A. 2009. Converging Gender in Education and Work. In Heikkinen, A., Kraus, K. (eds.). Reworking Vocational Education. Policies, Practices and Concepts. Bern etc.: Peter Lang. Rantalaiho, L and T. Heiskanen (eds) 1997. Gendered Practices in Working Life. London: MacMillan Press.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
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