ERG SES H 05, Parallel Session H 05
The question of discipline in the classroom has always been a subject of scientific debate and a main theme of teachers' ruminations. Various methods for preventing disciplinary trespasses have been used through history, depending on contemporary social circumstances. The main goal of discipline was to bring up obedient and biddable individuals, which is no longer the case today. Nastran (2000) finds that social change, new scientific discoveries, pluralism and the coexistence of many (different) truths have brought about a shift in values, methods of educations and views of the individual that all aim to early individualization. Consequently, the level of child self-awareness has grown considerably, as well (Jesper, 2009). The Postmodern view of child development calls attention to the fact that a child is never a passive receptor of facts and truths transmitted to him, but rather a creature capable of reflexion on all stages of development. This means that the development of a child's character is not merely the internalization of external patterns, but his own, personal remodelling of them. Today we no longer seek to bring up obedient children, who would follow tested socially defined values, but responsible children, who are capable of independent choices and of finding (and acting upon) those values that can help them function in their social environment and stay true to themselves. We no longer try to accustom them to accepted patterns of conduct, but rather to responsible and consensual tackling of moral dilemmas, as well as to flexibility in dealing with different life situations. Through respectful communication with weaker people, and people who think differently (which is undoubtedly true for pupils in relation to their teacher), we gradually reach a general consensus, or at least try to act in a »democratic spirit« (Gutmann, 1987).
Not every disciplinary strategy is acceptable when the aim is to bring up responsible, independent and autonomous individuals. The process of intensive control, for example, renders individual reflection completely impossible, because the character is developing under external pressure. The concept of education has to be defined as differentiated moral communication, not as an internalization process of moral norms and demands (Medveš, 2000).
Gardner, H. (1995). Razsežnosti uma. Teorija o več inteligentncah. Ljubljana: Tangram. Glasser, W. (1998a). Teorija izbire. Radovljica: TOP, Regionalni izobraževalni center. Gutmann, A. (1987). Democratic Education. Princenton: Princenton University Press.) soočenja različnih mišljenj, ki vzgojo preoblikuje v vzgojo v dialogu. Jesper, J., Helle, J. (2009). Od poslušnosti do odgovornosti. Radovljica: Didakta. Kobal, D. (2000). Temeljni vidiki samopodobe. Ljubljana: Pedagoški inštitut. Kroflič, R. (1997): Med poslušnostjo in odgovornostjo. Ljubljana: Založba Vija. Kroflič, R. (2002). Šola izkustveni prostor socialnega učenja in/ali moralne vzgoje. Sodobna pedagogika, št.5, str. 42-51. Kobus, T., Maxwell, L., Provo J. (2008). Increasing motivation of elementary and middle school students through positive reinforcement, student self-assessment, and creative engagement. Dostopno na spletu marca 2010. Kyriacou, Chris. (1997). Effective teaching in schools: theory and practice. Second edition. Cheltenham: Staney Thornes. Medveš, Z. (1991a). Pedagoška etika in koncept vzgoje (1.del). Sodobna pedagogika, vol.40, št.3-4, str.101-117. Medveš, Z. (1991b). Pedagoška etika in koncept vzgoje (2.del). Sodobna pedagogika, vol.40, št.5-6, str.213-226. Medveš, Z.(2000). Legitimnost vzgoje v javni šoli. Sodobna pedagogika, let.51, št.1,str.186-197. Medveš, Z. (2007). Vzgojni modeli v reformski pedagogiki. Sodobna pedagogika,št.4, str.50-69. Pšunder, M. (2005). How effective is school discipline in preparing students to become responsible citizens? Slovenian teachers’ and students’ views . Teaching and Teacher Education. Volume 21, Issue 3, April 2005, str. 273-286 Salvano-Pardieu Veronique, V., Fontaine, R., Bouazzaoui, B., Florer, F. (2009). Teachers’ sanction in the classroom: Effect of age, experience, gender and academic context. Teaching and teacher education. Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2009, str.1-11. Nastran Ule, M. (2000). Sodobne identitete. V vrtincu diskurzov. Ljubljana: znanstveno in publicistično središče. Rich Harris, J. (2007). Otroka oblikujejo vrstniki. Ljubljana: Orbis. Pšunder , M.(2004).Disciplina v sodobni šoli. Ljubljana: Zavod Republike Slovenije za šolstvo.
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