02 SES 09 C, Transitions: Career Guidance, Pathways, And Educational Mobility
Parallel Paper Session
At the ECER 2011 raised a fascinating discussion of transition processes in various European vocational training systems. In conjunction with this discussion, European research groups presented results of research on permeability, dropouts and career development of young people receiving vocational training. However, the relation between permeability and social mobility was not taken into consideration. This paper carries on this discussion and presents some evidence from the Swiss vocational training system. It also addresses the applicability of the results to other national contexts.
Intensive research has been performed in recent years both, on transitions from compulsory school to vocational training and from vocational training to working life (for Switzerland, e.g.: Bergmann, et al, 2011; for Germany, e.g. Köck & Stein, 2010; for the USA & Sweden, e.g. Breen & Jonsson, 2000). With respect to German-speaking Europe, the researchfocus has been mostly on unequal educational opportunities in this transitions. These studies are predominantly based on reproduction theory (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1971) or on rational choice theory (e.g. Breen & Goldthorpe, 1997). They predominantly highlight failure on the part of young people and less often foreground education and training experiences that proceed successfully. Critique of this “negative perspective” has been voiced by, among others, vocational training researchers (e.g. Stamm, 2009).
On the basis of the Swiss longitudinal study TREE (Transitions from Education to Employment, 2000-07) , this paper analyzes paths through the educational and vocational training systems taken by young people who successfully completed an apprenticeship in various different occupations. Its approach thus differs significantly from studies that dwell on so-called transition losers. In contrast to previously conducted research (Hupka-Brunner et al, 2011) that has focused on the mode of entering the SecII vocational training level (direct, delayed, no entry), this paper analyzes not only the mode of entry but also how the course of vocational training proceeds (switching occupations & sectors, dropping out from an apprenticeship program, and other forms of discontinuity) and looks into its relationship to social mobility. Hupka-Brunner et al (2011) have shown that, for entry into a certified SecII vocational training program, not only the type of SecI school attended and the performance at that school but also gender, social status and migration background constitute relevant predictors of success. Not all of the individual forms of discontinuity of a vocational training program have been adequately researched. Thus, there are numerous qualitative (e.g. Schmid, 2010) and quantitative studies (Bessey & Backes-Gellner, 2007; Neuenschwander, 1999; Schmid & Stalder, 2008) on the prediction and assessment of dropping out from vocational training programs, whereas hardly any systematic research has been done on switching occupations & sectors. In any case, whether and to what extent such transitions are connected with social mobility is unknown.
Bergmann, M.M., Hupka-Brunner, S., Keller, A., Meyer, M. & Stalder, B.E. (Eds.)(2011). Transitionen im Jugendalter. Ergebnisse der Schweizer Längsschnittstudie TREE(Transitions in youth. ... ). Zürich: Seismo. Bessey, D. & Backes-Gellner, U. (2007). Premature apprenticeships terminations: an economic analysis. Universität Zürich: Institut für Strategie und Unternehmensökonomie. Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1971). Die Illusion der Chancengleichheit (The Illusion of Equity). Stuttgart: Klett. Breen, R. & Goldthorpe, J.H. (1997). Explaining educational differenties: Towards a formal rational action theory. In Rationality ans Society, 9(3),275–305. Breen, R. & Jonsson, J. O. (2000). Analyzing Educational Careers: A Multinomial Transition Model. In American Sociological Review 65(5), 754–772. Hupka-Brunner, S., Gaupp, N., Geier, B., Ley, T. & Stalder, B.E. (2011). Chancen bildungsbenachteiligter Jugendlicher: Bildungsverläufe in der Schweiz und in Deutschland (Tranistion from Lower to Upper Secondary Education …). In Zeitschrift für Soziologie der Erziehung und Sozialisation 31(1), 62–78. Köck, M. & Stein, M. (Eds.) (2010). Übergänge von der Schule in Ausbildung, Studium und Beruf (Transitions from School to Training...). Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt. Neuenschwander, M.P. (1999). Lehrvertragsauflösungen im Kanton Zürich III. Zürich (Dissolutions of Traningcontracts in Zurich): Verlag impulse & Sauerländer. Schmid, E. (2010). Kritisches Lebensereignis „Lehrvertragsauflösung“. Eine Längsschnittuntersuchung zum Wiedereinstieg und zum subjektiven Wohlbefinden betroffener Jugendlicher (Dissolutions of Traningcontracts as Critical Life Event. ...). Bern: h.e.p. Schmid, E. & Stalder, B.E. (2008). Lehrvertragsauflösung: Chancen und Risiken für den weiteren Ausbildungsweg (Dissolutions of Traningcontracts: Chances and Risks ...). Bern: Bildungsplanung und Evaluation – Bildungsdirektion des Kantons Bern. Stamm, M., Kost, J., Suter, P., Holzinger-Neulinger, M. Safi, N. & Stroezel, H. (2011). Dropout CH – Schulabbruch und Absentismus in der Schweiz (School Dropout and Truancy in Switzerland). In Zeitschrift für Pädagogik 57(2), 187–202. Stamm, M. (2009). Migranten als Aufsteiger. Reflexionen zum Berufserfolg von Auszubildenden mit Migrationshintergrund (Migrants as Ascenders. ...). In Zeitschrift für Berufs- und Wirtschaftspädagogik (3), 361–377.
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