09 SES 10 C, Teachers’ and Students’ Competencies and Attitudes
Parallel Paper Session
The teacher as a socializing agent with competence to promote social goals is not mentioned among students of education portraying an ideal teacher (1). However, the teacher has great responsibility for teacher-student relationships in classrooms. Also non-verbal behaviours have impact (2). Understanding teacher behaviour encompasses socio-communicative style e.g. a willingness to listen to students. The instructional outcomes including student’s interest towards both the teacher and the course content was shown to rely on collective communication behaviours (3). Teachers’ social and emotional competences develop supportive relationships and management of the classroom and thereby increasing effectiveness and reducing stress (4). A meta-analysis on learner-centred teacher-students relationships pointed out a number of personal teacher variables. Among the individual teacher characteristics nondirective style, empathy and warmth were associated with student outcomes. The largest association was however related to positive teacher-student relationship (5).
To fully comprehend this aspect the learner’s situation becomes of interest. Features of the school and the classrooms may influence student motivation. The assumption was that contextual environmental conditions and lack of motivation were intervened (6). In this sense educators become responsible. According to Baker (7) children need relationships to construct the views about themselves and of the social world all in line with the attachment theory. A positive learning situation balances the conflict between academic press and support.
Through the whole elementary school period relatively little is known about the development of the nature in teacher-student relationship. Academic competence increases during late middle-school. Similarly the student’s beliefs, attitudes and motivationalsets regarding schooling differentiate. Peer relationships become central for the individual after grade 5 and students’ become more engaged in peer acceptance.
Parallel teachers report less positive relationships with boys, including conflicts, than with girls. Individuals at risk of poor school outcomes, who would benefit from closer relationships with a non-familial adult, have the same strong need for peer acceptance. Students with behavioural or learning problems seem more teacher dependent. Across grades, gender, and types of school outcomes students with positive teacher relationship were significantly advantaged compared to affected peers without this (7). Students’ perception of the relationship with their teacher was related to how they evaluated their academic work (8). At least four aspects were argued to influence teacher – student relationship. These were: the context of the teacher, the individual student, the peers, and the interpersonal culture of the classroom and the surrounding school (9). For students to manage teacher expectations, interference between feelings of confidence and appreciation within the classroom is substantial. Teacher expectations were thus important but they regarded classroom relationships either as central or superficial. The authors (9) concluded that few studies have examined teachers’ perceptions of the interpersonal school climate with effects on outcomes.
The purpose of the present study was to explore teachers’ knowledge and opinion of classrooms with either high or low students’ attitudes towards wellbeing. The intention was to reveal important characteristics of relational and learning qualities inside differing school environments.
1. Arnon, S. & Reichel, N. (2007). Who is the ideal teacher? Am I? Similarity and difference in perception of students of education regarding the qualities of a good teacher and of their own qualities as teachers. Teachers and Teaching: theory and praxis, 13: 441-64. 2. Wubbels, T. & Brekelmans, M. (2005). Two decades of research on teacher-student relationships in class. International Journal of Educational Research 43: 6-24. 3. McCroskey, J. C., Richmond, V. P., & Bennet, V. E. (2006). The relationships of student end-of class motivation with teacher communication behaviors and instructional outcomes. Communication Education 55: 403-14. 4. Jennings, P. A. & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher Social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research 79: 491-525. 5. Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Learner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research 77: 113-43. 6. Urdan, T. & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. Journal of School Psychology 44: 331-49. 7. Baker, J. A. (2006). Contributions of teacher-child relationships to positive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of School Psychology 44: 211-29. 8. Davis, H.A., Schutz, P.A., Chambliss, C. B. & Couch, K. N. (2001). Making the connection: A multi-method case study of relationships between student and teachers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle. 9. Davis, H. A. (2006). Exploring the contexts of relationship quality between middle school students and teachers. Elementary School Journal 106: 193-223. 10. Holfve-Sabel, M-A. (2006). Attitudes towards Swedish comprehensive school. Comparisons over time and between classrooms in grade 6. Göteborg: Göteborg. Studies in Educational Sciences 242. http://gupea.ub.gu.se/dspace/handle/2077/10035
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