02 SES 02 A, VET Policies: European Developments And Specific Change Agendas
Parallel Paper Session
The inclusion of an Environmental Awareness Module (EAM) within Vocational Education and Training (VET ) in Spain is considered a factor of overriding importance due to the current need to incorporate environmental awareness within society, as a whole but also within particular occupations and professional practices involved both in jobs relating to the environment and the entire system of production.
We will tackle the changes in the educational system that are essential for sustainable development (SD) and for environmental education (EE); we will also look at the equally essential changes that must be made to training in preparation for employment. We will analyze different dimensions of the EAM: its creation, development and evaluation, its set objectives, the function of training centres and the scope of students. We´ll also analyze the situation at the European level.
From the opening moments of the research we have investigated these possibilities and in the exploratory study of the state of environmental awareness in the field of VET, we established links with CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) (1) and started to work at European level through:
- Conducting literature search on the problem of study, that is, an exploratory study of environmental awareness in VET at the European level.
- Taking part in Study Visits for Education Specialists and Training.
- Organizing Study Visits in the area of "Active Citizenship and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD)" and in the area of new skills for new jobs: Green skills.
- Joining the board of experts "WIFO Gateway to research on education in Europe" (2).
One of the challenges is how to tackle the inclusion of sustainable development (3). Nowadays, within VET, environmental management is considered essential for the exercise of any activity with an environmental impact. (4).
Studies in Europe emphasize the main environmental concerns and provide recommendations for the implementation of active and applied policies to all agents involved, implementation and evaluation of environmental policies, as well as for the investigation of environmental topics at local, regional and global levels.
The European Commission identifies new sources of employment related with environment (5). Therefore we take into consideration good practices studies in relation with ESD (6) (7).
- Design and validate appropriate assessment tools in relation to the different objectives of the EAM.
- Build tools to evaluate the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal contents.
- Propose quality indicators for the integration of EAM in the dynamics of the VET courses.
We will describe quality criteria (with the background of the European level consideration) by means of a proposal for a system of environmental awareness indicators, classified in:
- Design indicators.
- Process indicators in the training centre.
- Course process indicators.
- Results indicators.
Validity and reliability of the indicators system was evaluate by the board of experts of the mentioned study visit and from "WIFO".
We will summarize all the research making special reference to the European level results or results that can be useful for other countries and partners.
*Acknowledgements.-This paper was written with the help of the projects now in force: EDU2008-02059 and EDU2008-03898, of the National R+D+I Plan of the Ministry of Science and Innovation (Spain)
(1) MARTINEZ VILLAR, A. (2008). Vocational Training and the Environment. Sustainability and Employment. In European Journal of Vocational Training, 44, 148 - 180). Thessaloniki: Cedefop. http://www.cedefop.europa.eu/etv/Upload/Information_resources/Bookshop/503/44_en_Villar.pdf (2) VET and HRD research in European countries. Directory of Professional Contacts http://www.b.shuttle.de/wifo/vet&hrd/dir-es.htm (3) UNESCO-UNEVOC (2006). Orienting Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Sustainable Development. Discussion Paper Series 1. Bonn: Unesco. (4) FIEN, J.; MACLEAN, R. y PARK, M.G. (eds). (2009). Work, Learning and Sustainable Development: Opportunities and Challenges. Dordrecht: Springer. UNESCO-UNEVOC. (5) CEDEFOP. (2010). Skills for green jobs. European Synthesis Report. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union. (6) GHK (2008). Inventory of innovative practices in education for sustainable development. Bruselas: Unión Europea. Dirección General de Educación y Cultura. (7) TILBURY, D. (2011). Education for Sustainable development. An expert review of processes and learning. París: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001914/191442s.pdf (8) CARR, W. y KEMMIS, S. (1988). Una aproximación crítica a la teoría y la práctica. En Teoría crítica de la enseñanza. Caps. 5 - 6.Barcelona: Martínez Roca. (9) GUTIÉRREZ PÉREZ, J; BENAYAS, J y CALVO ROY, S. (2006). Educación para el Desarrollo Sostenible: Evaluación de retos y oportunidades del decenio 2005-2014. En Revista Iberoamericana de Educación 40, 25-69. (10) PERALES PALACIOS, F.J.; GARRIDO ROMERO, J.M. y GALDÓN DELGADO, M. (2007). Ciencia para educadores. Madrid: Pearson educación. (11) SANDERS, J.R. (1998). Estándares para la evaluación de programas. Bilbao: Mensajero. (12) SARRAMONA, J. (2004). Factores e indicadores de calidad en la educación. Barcelona: Octaedro. (13) NAAEE. (1999). Evaluating the Content of Web Sites: Guidelines for Educators. Columbus: Ohio State University. Cooperative Extension Service. (14) NAAEE. (2000). Environmental Education Materials: Guidelines for Excellence. Workbook. Bridging Theory & Practice. Rock Spring: North American Association for Environmental Education.
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