04 SES 10 B, Gender and Inclusion
Parallel Paper Session
Although Europe promotes human rights for all and the European Union has adopted several directives to assure equal treatment, some groups are still discriminated . Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth are still regular victims of social exclusion and discrimination . Schools are structurally found to be unsafe environments for LGBT students, while they should be a place where respectful and critical citizenship is learned .
A partnership of 6 partners in 4 countries (Italy, Estonia, Belgium/Flanders and The Netherlands) cooperates on a joint strategy to mobilise high school students in human rights promotion and critical use of media . The key activity in the project is the development and implementation (February-May 2012) of a political school game “Voice Out”, with a focus on the deconstruction of prejudice about gender and (homo)sexual orientation. Before the game (October 2011-March 2012) research was done to map experiences with identity and prejudice among lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in the participating countries and by researching the views of young people on the same issues.
The objectives of this research were (1) to create a basis for the game and (2) to compare the situations in the participating countries. The research questions were: what are the levels of (experience with) discrimination? Do the experiences with identity and prejudice differ between and among adult LGBT people and young people? Which type of prejudice is prevalent? Which background variables are related to high levels of homophobia and specific types of prejudice? The research is unique, because in Italy and Estonia no comparable research has been done at all, while in Flanders and the Netherlands, not much statistical data on types of prejudice is available.
The method is supported by a theoretical foundation related to homophobia , heteronormativity , interactionism  and diversity pedagogy . Although "homophobia" has become in common usage for discrimination of self-identified LGBT and of people who express non-heteronormative behaviour, we prefer to use "heteronormativity" on gender nonconformity as more adequate concepts. From interactionism, we take the notions of how presentation of self in everyday life is dependent on the context and therefore lodge discrimination and social marginalization in a constructivist framework. Theory on diversity pedagogy may assist in framing alternative strategies through education.
 Human Right First (2007) Homophobia. 2007 Hate Crime Survey. Available online (http://www.humanrightsfirst.org/discrimination/hate-crime/survey/index.asp) [2a] Takács, ILGA-Europe and IGLYO (2006) Social exclusion of young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people in Europe. Available online (http://www.iglyo.com/content/article.php?id=QA000118) [2b] Warwick, I. et al. (2004) Homophobia, Sexual Orientation and Schools: a Review and Implications for Action. Research Report No 594, Institute of Education, University of London. Available on line (www.dcsf.gov.uk/research/data/uploadfiles/RR594.pdf)  Figueroa, P. (2000) Citizenship education for a plural society, in: A. Osler (Ed.) Citizenship and democracy in Schools: diversity, identity, equality (Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham), pp. 47-62.  NISO leaflet, http://www.nisoproject.eu/  Herek, G.M. (1990). Homophobia. In W.R. Dynes (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Homosexuality. New York: Garland. pp. 552-555.  Rich, A. (1980). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 5, 631–660.  Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. [8a] Prengel, A. (1995). Pädagogik der fielfalt: Verschiedenheit und gleichberechtigung in interkultureller, feministischer und integrativer pädagogik. Opladen: Leske+Budrich. [8b] Osler, A. (Ed.) (2005) Teachers, human rights and diversity: educating citizens in multicultural societies (Stoke-on-Trent, Trentham).
Search the ECER Programme
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.