09 SES 01 A, Findings from International Comparative Achievement Studies: Relationships in Mathematics, Science and Problem Solving
Parallel Paper Session
In 2003, the OECD provided a theoretical frame by identifying key competencies that are essential for the personal and social development of people in modern, complex societies. Three conceptual categories of key competencies are interacting in socially heterogeneous groups; acting autonomously; and using tools interactively, which should not be limited by a functional or an intellectual concept, but should be understood as an integrated concept.
The OECD takes a lead to measure key competencies as a conceptual frame of reference for performance evaluations of education systems at the international level, such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Europe and the other countries around the world have been developing and operating new curricula based on those key competencies. In this regard, those key competencies are not just a research trend but also national and international policy agenda on education as well as educational system. Some advanced countries try to apply these efforts to the educational reform in order to improve their people’s performance.
In fact, key competency-based education brings attention from ‘knowing-that’ to ‘knowing-how.’ However, theoretical and empirical questions about the concept of key competencies and its measurement have been the critical issues as the world has been transformed into a knowledge-based society and economy. These issues have been raised also in Korean educational settings in conjunction with the recent concerns for human resource development. And there has been little research into these issues around the world.
The purpose of this study is to find and provide with educational outcomes and implications in relation to key competencies by analyzing PISA results amongst OECD countries, in particular, focusing on problem-solving competency scores.
For this study, a literature review including OECD publications is employed. Also, PISA results of the problem-solving competency scores in 2003, 2006 and 2009 are used for examining the change and trends of 15 year old students amongst OECD countries.
Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following research questions:
1. How does a discrepancy between schools explain problem-solving competency scores shown on PISA results, and what is the difference of the discrepancy amongst OECD countries?
2. How do student level variables affect problem-solving competency scores shown on PISA results, and what is the difference of the competency amongst OECD countries?
3. How do school level variables affect problem-solving competency scores shown on PISA results, and what is difference of the competency amongst OECD countries?
4. What are the educational outcomes and implications indicated by the trends of problem-solving competency scores shown on PISA results?
Binkley, M. R. (2005). Moving towards measurement: The overarching conceptual framework for the ALL study. In T. S. Murray, Y. Clemont, & M. Binkley (eds.), Measuring adult literacy and life skills: New framework for assessment (pp. 46-86). Statistics Canada. Bryk, A., & Raudenbush, S. W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications. Coleman, J. S., Campell, E., Bobson, C., McPartland, J., Mood, A., Weinfed, E., & Yourk, R. (1996). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Commission of the European Communities (2005). Proposal for a recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council on key competencies for lifelong learning. Drucker, P. (1994). The age of social transformation. NY: Longman. OECD (2004). Learning for tomorrow's world: First results from PISA 2003. Paris: OECD. OECD (2004). PISA 2003 assessment framework: Mathematics, reading, science and problem solving knowledge and skills. Paris: OECD. OECD (2004). Technical report of PISA 2003. Paris: OECD. OECD (2005). School factors related to quality and equity. Paris: OECD. OECD (2005). The definition and selection of key competencies. Paris: OECD. OECD (2007). PISA 2006: Science competencies for tomorrow’s world (Vol. 1): Analysis. Paris: OECD. OECD (2010). PISA 2009 results (Vol. 1): What students know and can do. Paris: OECD. OECD (2010). PISA 2009 results (Vol. 4): What makes a school successful? Resources, policies and practices. Paris: OECD. Rychen, D. S., & Salganik, L. H. (eds.) (2003). Key competencies for a successful life and a well-functioning society. Cambridge: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Secretary’s Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) (1992). What work requires of schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor.
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