01 SES 07 B, CPD for newly-Qualified Teachers
Parallel Paper Session
The paper explores professional issues facing newly qualified teachers in two European contexts. The two qualitative research studies investigate and analyze challenges for teachers’ practice relating to their professional development. Within Cyprus, the role of reflection for teachers is considered and in the Scottish context, issues relating to professional autonomy are examined and the relationship of this with professional development. The studies of Cypriot and Scottish newly qualified teachers’ practices can reveal how, and to what extent primary teachers can improve the quality of their teaching through their professional development. This is enabled through reflection, autonomous practice and the concept of theories-in -use.
Education systems in both Cyprus and Scotland are going through a time of change and curriculum reform. Since entering the European Union in 2004 Cyprus has been aiming to improve the quality of education provided to future citizens. This goal has been reemphasized after it has been set as a strategic objective for the countries of the European Union by the European Council (European Council, 2009, Annex 1). Scotland has also been experiencing changes since 2004. The implementation of ‘Curriculum for Excellence’ (Scottish Government, 2004) has been a gradual process with the reform impacting on, amongst other things, teachers’ professional autonomy. In addition to this reform, aspects of the recent ‘Review of Teacher Education’ (Donaldson, 2010) in Scotland offers recommendations for the Continuing Professional Development (CPD) for newly qualified teachers.
In terms of the Cypriot study, the paper builds on reflective practice theory (Argyris and Shön, 1974; Brockbank and McGill, 1998; Osterman and Kottkamp, 2004) in order to show the role of the unconscious in change. Perspectives on professional autonomy and how this impacts on teaching are debated within the Scottish context of curriculum reform (Arnott and Menter, 2010; Cribb and Gewirtz, 2007; Hyslop-Margison & Sears, 2010). Professional development research literature (Day, Hadfield, and Kellow 2002; Conner 2004; Huntley 2005; Sarsar 2008; Saunders 2005) refer to the way forward in developing and continuing the professional development in both contexts. Considerations can be made where the key issues of autonomy and reflection overlap (Harrison, Lawson and Wortley, 2005).
This paper addresses the following questions:
· What changes do primary teachers bring about in practice through reflection and which theories-in-use underpin them?
· How does professional autonomy impact on the practice of primary teachers?
· To what extent do these issues enhance professional development for newly qualified teachers?
Argyris, C. and Schön, D.A. (1974). Theory in Practice: Increasing Professional Effectiveness. New York: Jossey-Bass. Arnott, M. and Menter, I. (2007). The same but different? Post-devolution regulation and control in education in Scotland and England. European Educational Research Journal. 6, 3, 260-265. Brockbank, A. and McGill, I. (1998). Facilitating Reflective Learning in Higher Education. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press. Development 7 (1) pp.91–106. Cribb, A. and Gewirtz, S. (2007). Unpacking autonomy and control in education: some conceptual and normative groundwork for a comparative analysis. European Educational Research Journal. 6, 3, 203-213. Day, C., M. Hadfield, and M. Kellow. 2002. Schools as learning communities: Education 3–13, 30 (3)pp. 19–22. Donaldson, G. (2010) Teaching Scotland’s Future. Report of a review of teacher education in Scotland. Edinburgh : Scottish Government European Council (2009) “Council Conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (‘ET 2020’) Official Journal of the European Union 2009/C 119/02 Harrison, JK, Lawson, T., Wortley, A. (2005) Mentoring the beginning teacher:developing autonomy through critical reflection on practice. Reflective Practice. 6 (3) 415-441 Huntley, R. 2005. Development of a reflective teaching approach in the primary school. Education 3–13, 33(1)p.p.20–25. Hyslop-Margison, E. & Sears, M. (2010) Enhancing teacher performance: the role of personal autonomy. Interchange. 41(1) 1-15 Osterman, K.F. and Kottkamp, R.B. (2004). Reflective Practice for Educators:Professional Development to improve student learning (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Ca: Corwin. Sarsar, N.M. 2008. Adopting a reflective approach to professional development. http:// www.eric.ed.gov ED 502899. Saunders, N. 2005. Learning through teaching. One school’s approach to school improvement through continuing professional development. Education 3–13, 33 (2),pp. 41–45. Scottish Government, (2004) A Curriculum for Excellence; The Curriculum Review Group. Edinburgh:Scottish Government
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