10 SES 02 D, Parallel Paper Session
Parallel Paper Session
This paper proposes a formalization of the English lexicon used in the description of teaching activities, through the development of a binary taxonomic model that enables the categorisation of any such activity and provides some evidence about its functionality. The project was initially motivated by the need to reflect on science teaching activities and to talk about them to my pre-service students, not having found a model that could be used to categorize and refer unequivocally to any such activity. The model was initially developed in Spanish for science teaching activities (Navarro Pastor, 2006, 2009a, 2009b), and has now been adapted to the English language for use in the teaching of science education and, assumably, of the didactics of any predominantly conceptual (as opposed to procedural) discipline.
It has been argued that ‘authentic’ education must reflect the nature of the parent disciplines as far as is practicable (Gilbert, Boulter & Elmer, 2000) and, consequently, the development of the model started with a reflection on how scientists build, ontogenetically, scientific knowledge (Navarro Pastor, 2006; O’Neill & Polman, 2004). A few years later I proposed the full model, building on previous work by other specialists (Furtak, 2006; Herron, 1971, Tamir, 1998), after having checked its capacity to assimilate any science teaching activity (Navarro Pastor, 2009a). The model takes the form of a matrix where the vertical coordinate brackets three types of processes used to teach/learn scientific knowledge (exposition to target knowledge—expository teaching—, reflection on available data or theory in order to build target knowledge—reflective teaching—, and conception and obtainment of the required data in addition to reflection on them—teaching by research). All three types of teaching may be empirical or not. These categories are further differentiated. Teaching by inquiry is defined as any combination of teaching by research, reflective teaching and open queried expository teaching (defined in the paper), in coincidence with the typical use of the word but with precise demarcations. The horizontal axis refers to different categories of contents, broadly: theory, application of theory—algorithmic (exercise) or heuristic (problems)—and designs. The classification of teaching methodologies (as opposed to single activities) is also possible but it leads, predictably, to more complicated labels.
In addition, I developed a pedagogical version (Harrison & Treagust, 2000) that I have employed (and refined) in my tuition during the last three years (see initial design and initial evidence at Navarro Pastor, 2009b). The model is subsequently employed to teach science pedagogy.
Furtak, E.M. (2006). The problem with answers: An exploration of guided scientific inquiry teaching. Science Education, 90(3), pp. 453-467. Gilbert, J.K., Boulter, C.J. & Elmer, R. (2000). Positioning models in science education and in design and technology education. In Developing Models in Science Education, John K. Gilbert and Carolyn J. Boulter (Eds.), pp. 3-18, Springer. Harrison, A. & Treagust, D. (2000). A typology of school science models. International Journal of Science Education, 22(9), pp. 1011-1026. Herron, M.D. (1971). The nature of scientific inquiry. School Review, 79, pp. 171-212. Jenkins, E.W. (2000). Constructivism in School Science Education: Powerful Model or the Most Dangerous Intellectual Tendency? Science & Education, 9, pp. 599-610. Navarro Pastor, M. (2006). Ideas para una mayor formalización de la Didáctica de las Ciencias. Didáctica de las Ciencias Experimentales y Sociales, 20, pp. 105-120. Navarro Pastor, M. (2009a). Un modelo taxonómico de las actividades de enseñanza de la ciencia como instrumento de formalización del meta-lenguaje del diseño didáctico. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, 27(2), pp. 209-222. Taber, K.S. (2001). Constructing chemical concepts in the classroom?: using research to inform practice. Chemical Education Research and Practice in Europe, 2, pp. 43-51. Navarro Pastor, M. (2009b). Un modelo pedagógico para la caracterización de las actividades de enseñanza de la ciencia. Enseñanza de las Ciencias, Número Extra VIII Congreso Internacional sobre Investigación en Didáctica de las Ciencias, Barcelona, pp. 186-191. O'Neill, D.K. Y Polman J.L. (2004). Why educate "little scientists". Examining the potential of practice bases science literacy. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(3), p. 234-266.
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