27 SES 07 C, Parallel Paper Session
Parallel Paper Session
Our present study presents research focused on the questions:
Are there statistically significant correlations between student´s goal orientation,perceived reference-norm orientation and orientation regarding exposure to failure, and are there differences between Germany and in Japan in regard to the mentioned variables?
Correlations between students’ orientation regarding exposure to failure and other motivational variables such as different goal orientations (i.e. Elliot & Fryer, 2008) and the perception of teachers’ orientation on reference norms were postulated by authors of many publications (in summary: Rheinberg, 2006), but were rarely empirically investigated (but: Schöne et al., 2004).
Student´s goal orientation
In pedagogical-psychological research two types of goal orientations are generally discriminated: learning goals, which basically focus on the learning progress and the enhancement of competences, and performance goals, which rather focus either on showing the achievement (“performance-approach goals”) or on hiding own deficiencies (“performance-avoidance goals”; i.e. Köller & Schiefele, 2006).
Students’ perception of teachers’ orientation on individual/social reference norm
Students’ perception of teachers’ orientation on individual reference norm tells to which extend the students think that their teacher takes notice of individual progress in learning and achievement. This is important because the efforts of teachers to encourage their students are generative especially if these efforts are perceived by the students (i.e. Rheinberg, 2006).
Students’ perception of teachers’ orientation on social reference norm tells to which extend the students think that their teacher focuses on social comparisons between the students achievement. There are inconsistent findings regarding the effects of this orientation (i.e. Köller & Schiefele, 2006).
Students’ orientation regarding exposure to failure
Crucial is how students deal with experiences of failure, i.e. (with a focus on mistakes as learning opportunities) in a positive way, or (with a focus on mistakes as deficiencies that should be hidden) in a negative way (i.e. vgl. Helmke, 2009; Oser & Spychiger, 2005).
Correlations between student´s goal orientation, perceived reference-norm orientation and orientation regarding exposure to failure
Schöne et al. (2004) found that students prefer those reference norms providing information about the goals they pursue: A learning goal orientation is more likely to be associated with an individual reference norm orientation, whereas a performance goal orientation is more likely to be associated with a social reference norm orientation.
We assume that students that have a higher learning goal orientation also have a more positive orientation regarding exposure to failure.
Cultural differences between Germany and Japan
Empirical research on cultural differences between western and eastern countries focus on the different role of school in society (i.e. Sakurai, 2007). One finding is that Japanese students are encouraged to study by their parents even if their teachers are not very motivated (i.e. Ichikawa 1990). In German school system there are selection processes during and between each academic year. In Japan however, the school itself has no function of selection as this is linked to entrance examinations (i.e. Schubert, 2001; 1992; Ichikawa, 1990). One could expect that Japanese students more tend to treat mistakes as opportunities to learn than German students do.
Elliot, A. & Fryer, J. (2008). The Goal construct. In J. Shah & W. Gardner (Eds.) Handbook of Motivation Science. New York: The Guilford Press, 235-250. Ichikawa, S. (1990). A Proposal for Comparative Study concerning Japanese Education. Comparative Education: Bulletin of the Japan Comparative Education Society, 16, 5-17. Helmke, A. (2009). Unterrichtsqualität und Lehrerprofessionalität. Diagnose, Evaluation und Verbesserung. Seelze-Velber: Klett/Kallmeyer. Köller, O. & Schiefele, U. (2006). Zielorientierung. In D.H. Rost (Hrsg.), Handwörterbuch Pädagogische Psychologie. Weinheim: Beltz, 880-886. Oser, F. & Spychiger, M. (2005). Lernen ist schmerzhaft. Weinheim und Basel: Beltz. Rheinberg, F. (2006). Bezugsnormorientierung. In D. Rost (Hrsg.): Handwörterbuch Pädagogische Psychologie. Weinheim, Basel, Berlin: Beltz, 55-62. Sakurai, K. (2007). Erscheinungsformen und Wahrnehmung von Gewalt bei Schülern und Schulverweigerung im deutsch-japanischen Vergleich. Frankfurt: Lang. Schöne, C., Dickhäuser, O., Spinath, B. & Stiensmeier-Pelster, J. (2004). Zielorientierung und Bezugsnormorientierung: Zum Zusammenhang zweier Konzepte. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Psychologie 18(2), 93-99. Schubert, V. (2001). Lernkultur in Japan Pädagogische Arrangements und ihre Kontexte. Die Deutsche Schule, 93. Jg. H. 2, 228 241. Schubert, V. (1992). Die Inszinierung der Harmonie Erziehung und Gesellschaft in Japan. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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