22 SES 07 B, Management and Governance in Higher Education
Parallel Paper Session
Background: The phenomenon of internationalization has gained extensive scholarly interest recently (van der Wende, 2001; Teichler, 2004; Kondakci, 2011; Enders, 2004). Many scholars developed different definitions of internationalization focusing on different levels and services of education. According to van der Wende (1997, p.19) internationalization is “a systematic, sustained effort aimed at making higher education (more) responsive to the requirements and challenges related to the globalization of societies, economy and labor markets.” The most comprehensive definition of internationalization was advanced by Knight (2004, p.9). She defined internationalization as “the process of integrating an international and inter-cultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of higher education.” This definition suggests that the concept of internationalization in higher education covers a variety of practices such as academic mobility for students and teachers, international networks, partnerships and projects, new international academic programs and research initiatives, delivery of education to other countries through new arrangements such as branch campuses or franchises using a variety of face-to-face and distance techniques, and inclusion of an international inter-cultural and or global dimension into the curriculum and teaching learning process. These practices reflect the core understanding of internationalization, which has been realized in the core countries of internationalization discussion, such as the USA, UK, Australia, and Canada.
However, several studies have proven the fact that internationalization is not peculiar this core (Aupetit, 2006; Kondakci, 2011). Regional internationalization has emerged as one of dimensions in the internationalization of higher education. Several social, political, cultural, and historical developments lead to emergence of regional hubs acting as a point of attraction from students, staff and institutions at higher education level.
The Balkans constitute a great importance for Turkey for several reasons, and vice versa Turkey constitutes a great importance for the Balkans. First, as an inheritor of the Ottoman Empire that reigned in the Balkans for around five centuries, Turkey shares a common history with the communities, which indicates close ethnic, socio-cultural and religious ties (Alp, 2004). Second, international migration from the Balkans to Turkey in the last two centuries caused organic ties between Turkey and those communities. Finally, the Balkan region has a strategic geopolitical location, it is as a gateway to Europe with whom Turkey has intensive economic and political relations. In this context, Turkey is following a constructive policy towards the region and attaches a special importance to investing in the Balkans.
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the educational policies of Turkey towards three Balkan countries (Kosovo, Macedonia, Bosnia-Herzegovina); to document the expectations of these countries from Turkey with regard to higher education; and to identify the social, cultural, political, economic and historical rationales behind the practices developed by Turkey in order to meet those expectations.
Alp, A.H. (2004). Balkan region in Turkey's security environment. The Europeanization of Turkey's security policy: Prospects and pitfalls. Ankara: Foreign Policy Institute. Aupetit, Sylvie D. (2006). The Brain Drain in Mexico-A Subject for Research...or Agenda? Globalisation, Societies and Education, 4, 103-120. Enders, J. (2004). Higher Education, Internationalization, and the Nation-State: Recent Developments and Challenges to Governance Theory. Higher Education, 47, 361-382. Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. (6th Ed.). Boston. Mc Graw. Hill . Kondakci, Y. (2011). Student mobility reviewed: attraction and satisfaction of international students in Turkey. Higher Education, 62, 573-592. Knight, J. (2004). Internationalization remodeled: definition, approaches, and rationales. Journal of Studies in International Education, 8(1), 5-31. van der Wende, Marijk. (2001). The International Dimension in National Higher Education Policies: What Was Changed in Europe in the Last Five Years? European Journal of Education 36: 431-441. van der Wende, M. (1997). The relationship between national policies for internationalization and those for higher education in general. National policies for the internationalisation of higher education in Europe. National Agency of Higher Education. Teichler, Ulrich. (2004). "The Changing Debate on Internationalization of Higher Education." Higher Education 48: 5-26.
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