10 SES 07 B, Parallel Paper Session
Parallel Paper Session
Expertise can see as cumulative, transferable and limitless. (Filander 2000). The most prominent feature of the new career orientation is its individuality. Career planning binds the person to markets and productivity (Collin and Young 2000). Expertise is no longer subjective and it contains no professional standards. The mobility and flexibility of expertise are frequently in conflict with individual well-being (Isopahkala-Bouret, 2005). Teachers are examples of students, so their activity is also guided by the expertise of the future.
Usually the development of individual expertise from novice to expertise has been seen as four- step model (Dreyfus & Dreyfus 1986, 16-51). In this research we see the development of expertise as human’s lifelong learning. Learning can be viewed as individual, group-based, inter-organizational or regional (Piirainen and Viitanen 2010). Learning through work and learning at school are very similar (Tynjälä 2008). Learning through work needs to be examined as a relationship between individuals and their environments (Billett 2006). It has been shown that diverse types of informal learning also take place in communities along with new discourses (Eraut 2004). Especially recently attention has been paid to learning in networks and regions, for examples, shared expertise and “innovative knowledge communities” (Tynjälä 2008).
Shared expertise can be regarded as a pedagogical practice, in which responsibility and knowledge are shared between the workers. The members motivate each other, provide feedback and jointly steer the common functions (Nonaka & Konno 1998). The use of shared expertise and shared leadership offers the opportunity to increase participation in decision-making and to ensure implementation of effective practices, ideas and projects. (Jackson 2000) Shared expertise is considered a crucial element in shared leadership, community knowledge and the creation of a learning society (Wenger 1998, Scott and Caress 2005).
The target of this project is to design a conceptual product, invisible and immaterial, yet real and useful. Expertise as a community process develops expert communities rather than individual experts in specific fields. (Bereiter and Scardamalia, 1993, Bereiter 2002.) Community process can take place also in education. Individual and expanding substance expertise combined with collective community expertise form a community expertise in which these two forms of expertise will evolve along a continuum (Engeström 2001). In order to achieve this, a partnership is required. The partnership is characterised by the win-win principle. (Shelley and Seung 2008.) Partners will gain strategic advantage for themselves (Bauer and Gruber 2007). The education process creates more value so that they trust more to each other’s and they have more knowledge to develop their services together and an increase are seen in the amount of methods available.
The aim of this study is to find out how students’ in teacher education create shares expertise.Our interest is to evaluate what kind of change was going on during the teacher education which had peer groups.
The research questions are 1. How does the discourse of the participants change during one year educational intervention? 2. What is the meaning of peer group in education?
Bauer, J. and Gruber, H., (2007), Workplace changes and workplace learning: advantages of an educational micro perspective. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(6), 675-688. Bereiter, C., (2002), Education and Mind in the Knowledge Age. (Mahwah, NJ: Lowrence Erlbaum associates, Inc. Publishers). Billett, S., (2006), Work, Subjectivity and Learning. In S. Billet, T. Fenwick and M. Somerville (eds.), Work, Subjectivity and Learning, Understanding Learning through Working Life. (Netherlands: Springer), pp. 1-20. Collin, A. and Young, R. A., (2000), Introduction: Framing the Future of Career. In: A. Collin and R. A. Young (Eds), The Future of Career Cambridge (Cambridge: University Press), pp. 1–20. Engeström, Y., (2001), Expansive learning at work. Toward an activity theoretical reconceptualisation. Journal of Education and Work 14, 133-56. Eraut, M., (2004), Informal Learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education. 26(2), 247-273. Isopahkala-Bouret, U., (2005), Joy and Struggle for Renewal. A Narrative Inquiry into Expertise in Job Transition (Helsinki: Department of Education. Research Report 201. University Press). Nonaka, I., Konno, N. (1998), The Concept of “ba”: Building a foundation for knowledge creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 40-54. Piirainen, A. and Viitanen, E. 2010. Transforming expertise from individual to regional community expertise: a four-year study of an education intervention. Int J of Lifelong Education, 29: 5, 581 — 596. Richardson, L. and St.Pierre, E.A., (2008), Writing: A method of inquiry. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (eds.), Collecting and Interpreting Qualitative Materials, (California: Sage Publications Inc.), pp. 473-500. Shelley, A. and Seung, Y.C., (2008), Factors that influence informal learning in the workplace. Journal of Workplace Learning. 20(4), 229-244. Silvermann, D., (2007). Interpreting Qualitative data (California: Sage Publications Inc.). Tynjälä, P. (2008), Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review 3, 130-154. Wenger, E., (1998), Communities of Practice: learning, meaning and identity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).
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