09 SES 04 A, Findings from International Comparative Achievement Studies: Relating Achievement to Teaching, School and System Variables
Parallel Paper Session
For TIMSS and PIRLS 2011, considerable effort was devoted to developing background scales that were well-supported in the research literature, long enough to be scaled using IRT (at least 20 data points), and were related to effective teaching and learning. That is, could TIMSS and PITLS 2011 report data on robust context questionnaire scales about important school and teacher factors. The purpose of this presentation is to show how well several of these newly developed scales relate to achievement internationally.
The first newly developed scale to be presented, School Support for Academic Success, addresses school effectiveness research findings that academic emphasis is a key variable in explaining student achievement (McGuigan and Hoy, 2006). Research also has shown that students have higher achievement if they are safe at school (Konishi, et al.). Consistent with evidence that bullying is an increasing problem, another newly developed scale is Students Bullied at School (Carroll-Lind, 2009). Education studies have struggled to link student achievement to different types of instructional activities, but the concept of “Student Content Engagement” provided a promising avenue for TIMSS and PIRLS 2011. Student content engagement focuses on the importance of the aims of the activity that brings the students and the subject matter content together. This cognitive interaction may take the form of listening to a lecture, or rehearsing a set of facts equally as much as solving non-routine problems. The effectiveness of the student’s in-the-moment cognitive interaction with instructional content is what is important. Two new scales were developed to measure this construct from the perspective of teachers and of students, Teachers Make Efforts to Engage Students and Students Engaged in Mathematics. Having teachers that can provide leadership is another dimension of effective schools, and it may be that policies to reduce teacher attrition are needed in order to improve students’ achievement (Boyd, et al., 2009). Therefore, another newly developed scale measures Teacher Career Satisfaction.
Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2009). Who leaves? Teacher attrition and student achievement. CALDER Working Paper No. 23. Washington, DC: National Center for Analysis of Longitudinal Data in Education Research. Carroll-Lind, J. (2009). School safety: An inquiry into the safety of students at school. Wellington, New Zealand: Office of the Children’s Commissioner. Konishi, C., Hymel, S., Zumbo, B.D., & Li, Z. (2010). Do school bullying and student-teacher relations matter for academic achievement?: A multilevel analysis. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 25, 19-39. McGuigan, L. & Hoy, W.K. (2006). Principal leadership: Creating a culture of academic optimism to improve achievement for all students. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5, 203-229. McLaughlin, M., McGrath, D.J., Burian-Fitzgerald, M.A., Lanahan, L., Scotchmer, M., Enyeart, C., & Salganik, L. (2005). Student content engagement as a construct for the measurement of effective classroom instruction and teacher knowledge. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
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