08 SES 05.5 PS, General Poster Exhibition
General Poster Session during Lunch
Bullying is not a new phenomenon in schools although the increasing prevalence among students involved has gone from occasional to usual (Cerezo, 2008). The reasons for these aggressive behaviours can be due to many factors depending on different contexts of people’s social backgrounds. Pelegrin and Garces (2008) distinguish four principal factors: (1) personal factors like sex, age, diffusion of the situation, lack of self-control, lack of frustration tolerance, social isolation, presence of psychopathy, etc.); (2) environmental factors (uncontrolled use of mass media, friends’ influence); (3) familiar factors like bad communication, mistreatment, insults, poor educative styles); and (4) pupil factors such as school maladjustment, contempt, exclusion by the school, opposing rules between school and family, etc.). Besides, the study by Zimmerman, Glew, Christakis and Katon (2005) assure that a shortage in early cognitive and emotional stimulation with massive exposure to mass media, influence children to have bad attitudes others.
This aggressiveness inside classrooms set a dangerous scene in the school where a lot of students suffer habitual humiliations by their classmates in silence. However, the impact of these dynamics with advertising in television and Internet has been to implement educative actions to prevent school bullying and to achieve a peaceful coexistence between students.
On the other hand, the fast technology evolution in our society has allowed technologies to be a part of minors’ daily lives without concern for their previous education in its responsible use, allowing students to become vulnerable targets for someone who uses mobile phones or Internet to harass them. An intentional aggressive act against an unprotected victim carried out by an individual or a group using electronic technologies over a prelonged period of time is known as cyberbullying. This aggression goes through school walls pursuing victims at any time and any place, so the consequences are worse than school bullying. It is important to highlight that cyberbullying always occurs among students and not with an adult involved in the aggressive act; this would be called grooming (Garaigordobil, 2011).
In 2007, Lenhart reported that around 10% of pupils have suffered cyberbullying, with girls predominantly being the victims. From his earliest investigations in collaboration with Finkelhor, Mitchell and Wolak in 2000, cyberbullying has become a relevant scientific subject which has attracted the attention of numerous international studies (Alvarez et al, 2011; Garaigordobil, 2011) in order to understand the variables on which this phenomenon depends and its relationship with traditional bullying (Beran and Li, 2007). In contrast, cyberbullying has been much less studied in Spain and particularly in the Region of Murcia (Giménez, Maquilón y Arnaiz, 2011; Maquilón, Giménez, Hernández y García, 2011). In view of this, we have considered the following research question and objectives.
Research question: How does cyberbullying arise between pupils in Murcia from 5th and 6th grade of Primary School?
- To analyze the reasons bullies and victims use to justify their implication in cyberbullying
- To contrast the reasons in cyberbullying depending on sex and school ownership
- To compare the perception between school bullying and cyberbullying
Álvarez, D., Núñez, J. C., Álvarez, J. L., Dobarro, A., Rodríguez, C. y González, P. (2011). Violencia a través de las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en estudiantes de secundaria. Anales de psicología, 27 (1), 221-231. Beran, T. and Li, Q. (2007). The relationship between cyberbullying and school bullying. Journal of Student Wellbeing, 1 (2), 15-33. Cerezo, F. (2008). Acoso escolar. Efectos del bullying. Boletín de la Sociedad de Pediatría de Asturias, Cantabria, Castilla y León, 48 (206), 353-358. Garaigordobil, M. (2011). Prevalencia y consecuencias del cyberbullying: una revisión. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 11 (2), 233-254. Giménez, A. M., Maquilón, J. J. y Arnaiz, P. (2011). Cyberbullying and cybervictimization in primary and secondary education in Murcia. Paper presented in the International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation. On November 14-16th. Madrid: Spain. Lenhart, A. (2007). Pew Internet American Life Project. URL: http://www.pewinternet.org/~/media/Files/Reports/2007/PIP%20Cyberbullying%20Memo.pdf.pdf. Maquilón, J. J., Giménez, A. M., Hernández, F. y García, A. (2011b). La victimización en las dinámicas de ciberbullying en centros educativos de la Región de Murcia. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 2, 265-275 Pelegrín, A., y Garcés, E. J. (2008). Variables contextuales y personales que inciden en el comportamiento violento del niño. European Journal of Education and Psychology, (1 y 2)1, 5-20. Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, C. y Tippet, N. (2006). An investigation into cyberbullying, its forms, awareness and impact, and the relationship between age and gender in cyberbullying. A Report to the Anti-Bullying Alliance. Zimmerman, F. J., Glew, G. M., Christakis, D. A. y Katon, W. (2005). Early Cognitive Stimulation, Emotional Support, and Television Watching as Predictors of Subsequent Bullying Among Grade-School Children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescents Medicine, 159, 384-388.
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