22 SES 06 D, Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Higher Education
Parallel Paper Session
The phenomenon of study-related stress, burnout and depression of higher education students has received a lot of attention lately (Robotham, 2008; Salmela-Aro, 2009). Interest has been focused on students’ academic performance, achievements and goal orientation (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Schaufeli, Martínez, Pinto, Salanova, & Bakker 2002; Tuominen-Soini, Salmela-Aro, & Niemivirta, 2008; Yang, 2004), university students’ coping styles (Heiman, 2004), and the relation between personality traits and burnout (Morgan, 2008).
In recent years, studies dealing with the significance of the learning culture and the teaching-learning environment for students’ burnout (Dunn, Iglewicz, & Moutier, 2008; Dyrbye et al., 2009; Jacobs & Dodd, 2003) have indicated that there is a need to clarify the relation between the pedagogical components of TLE and SRB.
Work-related burnout is usually defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism or depersonalization and reduced professional efficacy (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001, 402). The definition of study-related burnout is based on this definition and its three dimensions: exhaustion due to school demands, cynical and detached attitude toward one’s school, and feelings of inadequacy (Salmela-Aro, 2009; Schaufeli et al., 2002, 464).
The stressors that students experience are related to, at least, the following factors: studying, examinations, the transition to university, being in a different country, and financial issues (Robotham, 2008, 738–740). Byrne, Davenport & Mazanov (2007) have found ten components to measure adolescent stress: home life, school performance, school attendance, romantic relationships, peer pressure, teacher interaction, future uncertainty, school/leisure conflict, financial pressure and emerging adult responsibility.
Problems in mental health and personality traits such as anxiety may also modify our perceptions (Bourne & Yaroush, 2003, 77–79). Cecen and Ozturk (2007) have found out that the more students judged their teachers to be dissatisfied, uncertain, and admonishing, the more stress they experienced. Goldman and Wong (1997, 609) have shown that the more stress the students feel, the less satisfied they usually are with other areas of their life. Their job competence, study performance and global assessment of self-worth are lower. We presume that the students’ positive or negative appraisal of TLE is colored by their stress emotions that must be taken into consideration.
It is important to bear in mind that we do not have direct access to our environment per se, since our perceptions are always filtered through our personality, emotional and cognitive processes. Our interpretation of the situation – whether it is a challenge or a threat – affects the way we respond to it and cope with it. In this study, we particularly analyze the significance of the level of burnout for student’s perceptions of TLE.
The first aim of this study was to find out what is the relation between the university students’ perceptions concerning TLE and their perceived level of SRB? The second aim was to reveal what is the relation between the university students’ personal achievement motivation – such as studying abilities, study success and appreciation of studies – and their perceived level of SRB?
Andrews, B., & Wilding, J. M. (2004). Student mental health, life stress and achievement. British Journal of Psychology, 95, 509–521. Cecen, S., & Ozturk, H. (2007). Voicing the unvoiced: Student stress. Sabancı Üniversitesi Uluslararası Yabancı Dil Eğitimi Konferansi, Tuning In: Learners of language, language of learners, Sabancı Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Türkiye. Retrieved October 21 2010 from http://sl.sabanciuniv.edu/eng/SLConf2007/conf2007_docs/VoicingtheunvoicedStudentstress-SevdegerCecen_HandeOzturk.pdf. Dyrbye, L., Thomas, M., Harper, W., Massie Jr, F. Stanford, Power, D., Eacker, A., Szydlo, D., Novotny, P., Sloan, J. & Shanafelt, T. (2009). The learning environment and medical student burnout: a multicentre study. Medical Education, 43(3), 274–282. Entwistle, N., McCune V. & Hounsell, J. (2002). Approaches to studying and perceptions of university teaching learning environments: concepts, measures and preliminary findings. Retrieved January 14 2009 from http://www.ed.ac.uk/etl/. Goldman, C. R., & Wong, E. H. (1997). Stress and the college student. Education, 117(4), 604–613. Robotham, D. (2008). Stress among higher education students: Towards a research agenda. Higher Education, 56(6), 735–746. Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., & Nurmi, J.-E. (2009). School Burnout Inventory (SBI) – Reliability and Validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25 (1), 48-57. Schaufeli, W. B., Martínez, I. M., Pinto, A. M., Salanova, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). Burnout and engagement in university students - A Cross-National Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33(5), 464–481. Tuominen-Soini, H., Salmela-Aro, K. & Niemivirta, M. (2008). Achievement goal orientations and subjective well-being: A person –centered analysis. Learning and Instruction, 18(3), 251–66. Wigfield, A. & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Expectancy – value theory of achievement motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 68–81.
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