22 SES 07 A, Inclusion and Diversity in Higher Education Settings
Parallel Paper Session
Different researchers have observed great, in some cases growing inequalities according to level of education. This has been explained in terms of the growth of a knowledge society ( Bresnahan, Brynjolfsson & Hitt , 2002; De Rick, Vanhoren, Op den Kamp & Nicaise, 2006; Gesthuizen & Scheepers, 2010; Gini, 2000; Green, Ashton, Burchell, Davies & Felstead, 2000; Heidemann, 2001; Machin, 2001; Nixon, 2006; Schneeberger, 2006).
This paper used the data from the European Social Survey (ESS08) to test that explanation. Six criteria are taken into account: employment, health, satisfaction with personal life, attitudes with regard to migrants, trust in institutions, and repressiveness. For each of these variables great differences between elementary and high levels of education are observed in all countries in the ESS08 data bank. The levels of education are defined as follows: less educated or elementary education (ISCED 0-2), middle level education (ISCED 3-4), higher education (ISCED 5-6).
Aggregate comparative analysis and multilevel analysis are used to see how the development of the knowledge society, the welfare state and characteristics of the educational system are related to the inequalities or differences between the different levels of education. Three characteristics of the educational system are taken into account: the degree of differentiation or tracking at the secondary level, the degree of freedom of school choice of the parents, and the degree of inequality between the schools (as measured on the basis of the PISA results).
Bresnahan, T.F., E. Brynjolfsson & L.M. Hitt (2002). Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence. In: Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117, pp. 339-376. De Rick, K., Vanhoren, I., Op den Kamp, H. & Nicaise, I. (2006). Het lerend individu in de kennismaatschappij, ’s-Hertogenbosch: CINOP. Gesthuizen, Maurice & Scheepers, Peer. (2010). Economic Vulnerability among Low-Educated Europeans. Resource, Composition, Labour Market and Welfare State Influences. Acta Sociologica, 53(3), 247-267. Gini, A. (2000). What happens if work goes away? In: Business Ethics Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 181-188. Green, F., D. Ashton, B. Burchell, B. Davies & A. Felstead (2000). Are British Workers Becoming More Skilled? In: Borghans, L. & A. de Grip (eds.), The Overeducated Worker? The Economics of Skill Utilization. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 77-106. Heidemann, W. (2001). Knowledge and Skills for the New Economy: The Role of Educational Policy. In: Training Matters: Working Paper Series (Labour Education and Training Research Network). Machin, S. (2001). The Changing Nature of Labour Demand in the New Economy and Skill-Biased Technology Change. In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 63, pp. 753-776. Nixon, D. (2006). ‘I just like working with my hands’: Employment aspirations and the meaning of work for low-skilled unemployed men in Britain’s service economy. In: Journal of Education and Work, 19, 2, pp. 201-217. Schneeberger, A. (2006). Skills for the knowledge and service society. Trends determining future pre-service and in-service VET needs. In: European journal of vocational training, 38, 2, pp. 6-23.
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