04 SES 04 C, Policy Evaluation
Parallel Paper Session
Over the last five years the use of special needs education (SNE) based on individual decision in Norwegian primary and lower secondary education has increased dramatically, from 5.5 % - 8.5 % of the total student population. This situation marks a break with a decade of stability in special needs education, at about 5.5-6.0 %. This sudden explosion in special needs education coincides with the introduction of a major school reform. The Knowledge Promotion introduces changes in governance and in substance, structure and organization both at compulsory level and at the upper secondary education and training.
This paper reports on results from a research study, studying “Why does the use of SNE increase in Norwegian comprehensive education (primary, lower and upper secondary education)”? The research questions are: (i) Why does the use of SNE education increase in municipalities and counties, and what are possible causes as described by key actors in the comprehensive school system? (ii) What dilemmas do these actors experience? The purpose of the study is to gain insight and understanding of causes and dilemmas regarding SNE, experienced by the key actors in the school system. The research focus is on how the school sector explains the rise in SNE.
The empirical analysis indicates that actors in the school system explains the increased use of SNE with reference to three main issues; increased concentration on student’s learning outcome, increased focus on diagnostic practices and students’ rights, and changes in the social conditions and childhood environment. At the same time, there are significant differences in how these issues affect the use of SNE in various communities and counties. Analysis of contextual conditions regarding small/large municipality/county and rural/urban areas can only explain some of this variation.
On this basis the following research question is formulated: How can similarities and differences across municipalities and counties concerning use of SNE be explained and understood?
The theoretical framework of the study draws on several resources: Historical accounts of the use of SNE in Norway, the political and pedagogical development of inclusive education in Norway, and finally the study draws on an outline of inevitable dilemmas in special needs education.
Allan, J., Slee, R. (2008). Doing Inclusive Education research. Rotterdam: Sense publisher. Bryman, A. (2004). Social Research Methods, 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gjessing, H-J (1972) Norsk spesialundervisning gjennom tre decennier 1950-80. [Norwegian SEN through three decades 1950-80]. Foredrag og utredninger ved Statens spesiallærerskolens 10-årsjubileum. Haug, P. (2003) Evaluering av Reform 97: sluttrapport frå styret for Program for evaluering av Reform 97. [Evaluation of Reform 97: Final report]. Oslo: Norges Forskningsråd Haug, P. (2003). Har spesialundervisning ein plass i skulen for alle? [Does SNE have a place in the school for all?] Nordisk tidsskrift for spesialpedagogikk. Vol. 81 - no. 2. Norwich, B. (2008). Dilemmas of difference, inclusion and disability: International perspectives and future directions. London: Routlege. Slee R. (2011). The irregular school: Exclusion, Schooling and Inclusive Education. London: Taylor & Francis. Vislie, L. (2003). Inkluderende opplæring: Idégrunnlag og politikk. [Inclusive education: Ideas and policies]. Spesialpedagogikk, no. 6, p. 4-14.
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.