09 SES 09 C, Determinants of Student Achievement and Educational Segregation
Parallel Paper Session
The effect of summative assessments, such as grades, on student motivation for learning and achievement, has been investigated by numerous researchers. To a large extent the results are disparate and have led to different conclusions (Cameron et al., 2005; Harlen & Deakin, 2002; Ryan & Deci, 2000). The Differentiation Effect Theory suggests that the effect of grades and tests varies due to students´ level of ability, age, gender and socio-economic status (SES) while the Competitive Preference Theory suggests that more or less all students benefit from grades and tests irrespective of their characteristics and background (Cameron et al., 2005; Deci & Ryan, 2000). However, the majority of the results show that there are differential effects of being graded on later achievement and that the effects are different for different subgroups of students. Butler (1988) compared student´s motivation for learning after receiving different types of feed-back on several tasks. The students were given grades, comments or both. The conclusion was that comments had the largest positive effect on student motivation for learning while grades had a negative effect. According to the Conservation of Resources Stress Theory (COR) (Hobfoll, 1989, 2001), students strive to gain, rebuild and protect their resources (self-esteem) in order to reach success in school and to minimize stress. When experiencing failure in school, their self-esteem is threatened which may lead to a decrease of learning and development of negative attitudes towards school.
In a recently conducted quasi-experimental study (Klapp, Cliffordson & Gustafsson, 2011) based on a 10 percent national representative sample, half of which received grades and half of which did not receive grades in the 6th Grade of compulsory school. The whole sample received grades in the 7th Grade. The result showed that students who received grades in the 6th Grade achieved slightly lower grade point average (GPA) one year later in comparison to students who did not receive grades in the 6th Grade, after controlling for selection effects by the use of cognitive tests. The result also showed interaction effects. Students with low cognitive ability, and high socioeconomic status who were graded, received lower GPA in the 7th Grade (effect sizes ranged from .20 to .49), whereas students with high ability and low socioeconomic status benefited from being graded. Thus, according to these results, to be graded seems to widen the gap even more between different subgroups of students due to their level of ability, gender and SES (Klapp, Cliffordson & Gustafsson, 2011).
In the current study, the main purpose is to investigate the long-term effects of being graded or not for later achievement by analysing data for subsequent Grades (7th, 8th, 9th Grades, completion of upper secondary school, and exam from university) for different subgroups of students.
Cameron, J. W., Pierce, D., Banko, K. M., & Gear, A. (2005). Achievement-based Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: A Test of Cognitive Mediators. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 641-655. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ”What” and ”Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and Self-determination of Behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268. Gustafsson, J.-E. (2004). Modelling individual differences in change through latent variable growth and mixture growth modelling: basic principles and empirical examples. In A. Demetriou, & A. Raftopoulos (Eds.). Cognitive Developmental Change. Theories, Models and Measurement, (pp. 379-401). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Harlen, W., & Deakin, C. R. (2002). A systematic review of the impact of summative assessment and tests on students´ motivation for learning (EPPI-Centre Review, version 1.1). In Research Evidence in Education Library. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education. Klapp, A., Cliffordson, C., & Gustafsson, J.-E. (2011). The effect of being graded on later achievement – evidence from 13-year-olds in Swedish compulsory school. Submitted for possible publication. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008). Mplus user´s guide. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén. Ryan, R. M. & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.