22 SES 06 B, Employability and Transition to Work of Higher Education Graduates
Parallel Paper Session
Although women reach a higher average in academic results than men, they have a higher unemployment rate and spend more time in their transitions, as Salas-Velasco’s (2007: 336) study demonstrates: “Females are less likely to find their first job in less than 18 months compared with men”.
The wide range in the proportion of women across their labour situation in comparison with men, does not show them as having a successful situation after studying at university. This has produced “extra qualified” women, that is, a disparity between posts in jobs and qualifications, so that qualified training and labour activity are not connected (González Suárez-Bustamante, 2003), while as García-Aracil (2007) shows occupational titles have little explanatory power in getting jobs or posts by females graduates despite this extra qualification.
Moreover, it is found, mainly in the case of women, that graduates with children have longer transitions than those who have none, whereas just the opposite occurs with men. The same occurs with having a partner or being married; these graduates experience shorter durations in relation to single ones, according to Salas-Velasco (2007), although the marital status specifically benefits male graduates more than female, García-Aracil (2007).
As regards the academic and training level of women and men, women are required to do continuous training during their professional career but they must also harmonize their family and home duties
García-Aracil, A. (2007). “Gender earnings among young European Higher Education Graduates”. Higher Education (2007), 53: 431-455. González Suárez-Bustamante, A. (2003). “Algunas reflexiones sobre el futuro del empleo”. In Ordóñez. M. (coord.) (2003): Las nuevas fronteras del empleo. Madrid: Pearson Educación-Aedipe. Pp. 22-42 Graham, J. and Smith, S. (2005). “Gender differences in employment and earnings in science and engineering in the U.S.”. Economics of Education Review, Vol. 24, Issue 3, June 2005, pp. 341-354. Gustafsson, S. (2000). Gender and the labour market econometric evidence of obstacles to achieving gender equality. Houndmills (Basingstoke), Macmillan Press. Holt-Baines, M. J. (2005). Career expectations and graduates earnings a comparison of dentistry and sociology students. Manchester, University of Manchester (UK). Mañeru, A. y Grañeras, M. (coord.) (2004). Mujeres en cargos de representación en el sistema educativo. Madrid: Instituto de la Mujer/CIDE. Richardson, P. y Watt, H. (2005). "I´ve decided to be a teacher: Influences on career change”. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21 (5,), 475-489. Rodríguez, Mª C., Vicente Peña, J., Fernández, C. Mª. and Viñuela, Mª P. (2006). “Gender discourse about an ethic of care: nursery schoolteachers' perspectives”. Gender and Education, 18 (2), 183-197. Salas-Velasco, M. (2007). “Private returns to an university education: An instrumental variables approach”. Higher Education, 51, 411-438.
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