28 SES 03, Beyond PISA: Social and Ethical Aspects of Key-competencies
Parallel Paper Session
For the last three decades, most European educational systems have known transformations on their modes of regulation. Reforms and measures of (de)centralisation, school autonomy, liberalisation of school choice and accountability multiplied, making it possible to recognise a certain convergence among European policies orientations, also diffused by international organisations.
These processes have been analysed through the role of evaluation, which provides a meaning to common elements of the new institutional arrangements, actors involved in decision-making and type of (de)centralised responsibilities. “Evaluative State” (Neave, 1989; Broadfoot, 1996) and “Quasi-Market” (Maroy, 2005) concepts are often mobilised to study the redistribution of competencies among educational actors.
Although common trends explainable by reference to evaluation are identifiable – such as the definition of minimal national competences, decentralisation of means and management responsibilities, development of school inspections, generalisation of national exams or measures of school choice and private education financing -, there are still important differences among European educational systems, due to their particular history and institutional characteristics.
The aim of this paper is to provide a comparative reflection on the evolution of the modes of regulation, showing that beyond these identifiable trends, national policies and measures assume specific configurations. The elaboration of a typology on the patterns of relations and educational actors competencies will enable the study of how five educational systems - Portuguese, Italian, French Community of Belgium, Danish and English – mediate those common orientations in a particular way (Van Haecht, 1998), admitting their relative autonomy on the definition of paths, configurations and measures.
This analysis offers pertinent clues of reflection on the relationship between global (European Union context) and national (educational system) perspectives. The main theoretical issue is to understand how these two scales interact in the production of policies of (de)centralisation, school autonomy, school choice and accountability. The “bricolage” process in the elaboration of educative policies (Ball, 1998) combines the borrowing of some foreign ideas fragments, interpreted from local contexts and ideologies, and their adaptation to pre-existing institutional structures – in a continuous process of recontextualisations and hybridisations. Its interpretation and explanation is provided by Giddens “duality of structure” (Giddens,  2000) approach which considers the permanent interaction between conditions and individuals who are structured and contribute to shape social reality.
The paper combines global and national perspectives on processes of redistribution of competencies between actors in European educational systems. First, we briefly introduce common transformations referring to the role of evaluation. Second, we present a typology of patterns of relations and educational actors competencies, distinguishing five types of systems according to the way of how groups of contexts mediate and respond similarly to these national trends. Finally, a deeper analysis of policies’ recontextualisations and hybridisations will be conducted at the educational system level, considering one example of each type.
ARCHER, M (1979). Social Origins of Educational Systems, London: SAGE. BALL, S. (1998). Big Policies/ Small World : an introduction to international perspectives in education policy. Comparative Education, 34(2), pp.119-130. BROADFOOT, P. (1996). Education, Assessment and Society. A Sociological Analysis. Buckingham: Open University Press. BROADFOOT, P. (2000). Un nouveau mode de régulation dans un système décentralisé: l'Etat évaluateur. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 130, 43-55. EURYDICE (2007), Autonomia das Escolas na Europa. Políticas e Medidas. Comissão Europeia, Eurydice. EURYDICE (2009), Chiffres clés de l’éducation en Europe 2009. Commission Européenne, Eurydice. GIDDENS, A. ( 2000). Dualidade da Estrutura. Agência e Estrutura. Oeiras: Celta Editora. MAROY, C. (2005). Vers une régulation post-bureaucratique des systèmes d’enseignement en Europe ? Les cahiers de Recherche en Éducation et Formation, vol.49. MONS, N. (2004). Politiques de décentralisation en éducation : diversité internationale, légitimations théoriques et justifications empiriques. Revue Française de Pédagogie, nº146, pp. 41-52. NEAVE, G. (1988). On the Cultivation of Quality, Efficiency and Enterprise: An Overview of Recent Trends in Higher Education in Western Europe, 1986-1988. European Journal of Education, 23(1/2), pp.7-23. NORMAND, R.; DEROUET, J-L. (2011). Évaluation, développement professionnel et organisation scolaire. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 174, pp.5-20. OECD (2008), Education at a Glance 2008, OECD Publishing. OECD (2010), PISA 2009 at a Glance, OECD Publishing. OECD (2011). Education at a Glance 2011: OECD Indicators, OECD Publishing. VAN HAECHT, A. (1998) Les politiques éducatives, figure exemplaire des politiques publiques ? Éducation et Sociétés, 1 (3). L’éducation, l’État et le local. De Boeck: Bruxelles. VAN ZANTEN, A.; BALL, S. (2000). Comparer pour comprendre: Globalisation, réinterprétations nationales et recontextualisations locales des politiques éducatives néolibérales, Revue de l’Institut de Sociologie, 1997, v.1-4, Bruxelles, ULB, pp.112-131.
00. Central Events (Keynotes, EERA-Panel, EERJ Round Table, Invited Sessions)
Network 1. Continuing Professional Development: Learning for Individuals, Leaders, and Organisations
Network 2. Vocational Education and Training (VETNET)
Network 3. Curriculum Innovation
Network 4. Inclusive Education
Network 5. Children and Youth at Risk and Urban Education
Network 6. Open Learning: Media, Environments and Cultures
Network 7. Social Justice and Intercultural Education
Network 8. Research on Health Education
Network 9. Assessment, Evaluation, Testing and Measurement
Network 10. Teacher Education Research
Network 11. Educational Effectiveness and Quality Assurance
Network 12. LISnet - Library and Information Science Network
Network 13. Philosophy of Education
Network 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research
Network 15. Research Partnerships in Education
Network 16. ICT in Education and Training
Network 17. Histories of Education
Network 18. Research in Sport Pedagogy
Network 19. Ethnography
Network 20. Research in Innovative Intercultural Learning Environments
Network 22. Research in Higher Education
Network 23. Policy Studies and Politics of Education
Network 24. Mathematics Education Research
Network 25. Research on Children's Rights in Education
Network 26. Educational Leadership
Network 27. Didactics – Learning and Teaching
The programme is updated regularly (each day in the morning)
- Search for keywords and phrases in "Text Search"
- Restrict in which part of the abstracts to search in "Where to search"
- Search for authors and in the respective field.
- For planning your conference attendance you may want to use the conference app, which will be issued some weeks before the conference
- If you are a session chair, best look up your chairing duties in the conference system (Conftool) or the app.