16 SES 11 B, Teachers’ Decisions on Using ICT
Parallel Paper Session
Recent research on the factors that promote ICT implementation in schools has emphasised the need to include school level variables and concluded that focusing solely on variables at class level or individual teacher characteristics is insufficient (Vanderlinde & Van Braak, 2010). These studies have highlighted how teachers' perceptions about structural conditions such as ICT policy planning, ICT support and ICT infrastructure have a positive influence on ICT integration in primary schools (Tondeur, van Keer, van Braak & Valcke, 2008; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008). While these authors contributed to the understanding of the complexity of ICT implementation, they did so mainly in teaching and learning processes in the context of classroom use. The study presented here takes a step further and focuses on the influence of organisational conditions on teachers and administrators’ management use of ICT outside the classroom.
Adopting a school level perspective, the aim of this research is to develop and test a model of the influence of school-related factors in teachers and administrators’ use of ICT, particularly the internet, as a management tool in primary and secondary schools. We conceptualise the management use of ICT as teachers and administrators’ duties in the functioning of schools as organisations. This also includes activities orientated to promote the interaction of the schools with other elements of the local context (i.e. other schools, other institutions, families and parents). On the side of school-related characteristics and contextual conditions, this study builds on variables identified in previous frameworks (Lim, Chai, & Churchill, 2011; Tondeur, Valcke & van Braak, 2008; Vanderlinde & Van Braak, 2010). These conditions include the degree of schools' organisational development; the ICT infrastructure; the provision of ICT support and pedagogical guidance; the development of a school ICT plan; and the vision and rationale behind the ICT implementation process.
ICT implementation in schools occurs at the classroom level in the form of teaching and learning activities as well as at the organisational level in the mode of managerial practices (Law, Pelgrum, & Plomp, 2008; Ward & Parr, 2010). Accordingly, this study contributes to the recent literature on the school conditions that affect ICT implementation by broadening the scope of teachers' use of ICT and considering it from a managerial point of view. In effect, knowing which structural conditions affect ICT management use is crucial not only to deepen our understanding of the complexity of ICT implementation but also, to approach this phenomenon from a holistic perspective. The findings of this study will help to develop actions and policies of ICT implementation that could complement the more common approach mainly focused in the learning and teaching processes occurring in the classroom.
Fàbregues, S., Rodríguez-Gómez, D., Meneses, J., & Ion, G. (2011, September). Factors affecting teachers’ use of ICT as a professional tool outside the classroom. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research (ECER), Berlin (Germany). Law, N., Pelgrum, W.J., & Plomp, T. (2008). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world: Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 Study. Hong Kong: CERC-Springer. Lim, C.P., Chai, C.S., Churchill, D. (2011). A framework for developing pre-service teachers’ competencies in using technologies to enhance teaching and learning. Education Media International, 48(2), 69-83. doi:10.1080/09523987.2011.576512 Sigalés, C., Mominó, J.M., Meneses, J., & Badia, A. (2009). La integración de internet en la educación escolar española. Situación actual y perspectivas de futuro. Madrid: Ariel. Tondeur, J., van Keer, H., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). ICT integration in the classroom: Challenging the potential of a school policy. Computers & Education, 51(1), 212-223. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2007.05.003 Tondeur, J., Valcke, M., & van Braak, J. (2008). A multidimensional approach to determinants of computer use on primary education: Teacher and school characteristics. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24 (6), 494-506. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2008.00285.x van Braak, J., Tondeur, J., & Valcke, M. (2004). Explaining different types of computer use among primary school teachers. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 19(4), 407-422. doi:10.1007/BF03173218 Vanderlinde, R., & van Braak, J. (2010). The e-capacity of primary schools: Development of a conceptual model and scale construction from a school improvement perspective. Computers & Education, 55(2), 541-553. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.016 Ward, L., & Parr, J.M. (2010). Revisiting and reframing use: Implications for the integration of ICT. Computers & Education¸ 54(1), 113-122. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2009.07.011
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