10 SES 09 C, Parallel Paper Session
Parallel Paper Session
Fostering critical thinking (CT) represents a major educational outcome in higher education worldwide (Facione, 2010). As a composite of attitudes, knowledge, and cognitions, CT is conceptualized in terms of skills and dispositions. CT skills are defined as purposeful, self-regulatory judgments that results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference and explanation. CT dispositions include truth-seeking, openmindedness, systematicity, analyticity maturity, inquisitiveness, and self-confidence (Facione, 2010). Facione notes that CT skills and dispositions are two separate constructs: being disposed towards CT does not assure that one is skilled or vice versa. In physical education (PE), McBride (1992) defined CT as “reflective thinking that is used to make reasonable and defensible decisions…” (p.115). A key component in McBride’s definition is thoughtful decision-making. To make thoughtful decisions, one must first be willing or predisposed to the CT process.
Although critical thinking is widely accepted as an important international learning outcome, researchers say that CT skills and dispositions among students in higher education need to be developed (Grosser & Lombard, 2008; Sengul & Ustundag, 2009). We cannot assume that students will spontaneously pick up these skills without being taught explicitly. In this context, teachers play a crucial role in preparing thoughtful citizens. To prepare the next generation of critical thinkers, teachers need to be trained in their pre- and in-service programs. Daniel & Bergman-Drewe (1998) assert that the development of CT should be a primary goal of Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs. However, some researchers who examined preservice PE teachers’ CT dispositions (e.g., McBride, Xiang & Wittenburg, 2002; McBride, Xiang, Wittenburg & Shen, 2002) and skills (Sacli & Demirhan, 2008; 2011) pointed out that critical thinking in this population needs to be improved.
Pearce & Jackson (2006) state that drama education can benefit a university education. De la Roche (1993) states that “critical thinking is encouraged at many different stages of the dramatic process” (p.5). Consequently, one way to teach CT to preservice PE teachers may be through creative drama (CD). In addition to CT, drama also provides opportunities for students to understand different points of view and to learn about empathy as well as to improve creativity, group work, communication, and self-awareness. Generally, CD in education is to animate and represent any subject with a group utilizing improvisation and role playing techniques that draw from the experiences of the group members (Adiguzel, 2006).
Though there is some evidence linking CD to improvement of CT, little research examining pre-service PE teachers’ CT in CD process exists. Therefore, this study examined CT among pre-service PE teachers involved in CD. Specifically, the research questions were: (a) is there evidence of critical thinking dispositions and skills among pre-service PE teachers enrolled in a 10-week creative drama class? and (b) are there changes in preservice PE teachers’ critical thinking dispositions and skills across in a 10-week creative drama class?
Adiguzel, O.(2006). The concept, components and stages of creative drama. Creative Drama Journal, 1, 17–27. Daniel, M.F., Bergman- Drewe, S. (1998). Higher-order thinking, philosophy, and teacher education in physical education. Quest, 50 (1), 33–58. De La Roche, E. (1993). Drama, critical thinking and social issues. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service ED379172). Facione, A.P. (2010). Critical Thinking: What it is and Why it counts. The California Academic Press, Millbrae, CA, ISBN 13: 978-1-891557-07-1, www.insightassessment.com Grosser, M.M., Lombard, B.J.J. (2008). The relationship between culture and the development of critical thinking abilities of prospective teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24 (5), 1364–1375. McBride, R. (1992). Critical thinking – an overview with implications for physical education. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 11, 112-125. McBride, R.E., Xiang, P., & Wittenburg, D.(2002). Dispositions toward critical thinking: The preservice teacher's perspective. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8 (1), 29-40. McBride, R.E., Xiang, P., Wittenburg, D., & Shen, J. (2002). An analysis of preservice teachers’ dispositions toward critical thinking: A cross-cultural perspective. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 30, 2, 131-140. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Pearce, G., & Jackson, J. (2006). Today's educational drama - planning for tomorrow's marketers. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24, 218-232. Sacli, F., & Demirhan, G. (2011). Comparison of critical thinking skills of students in physical education teacher education, coaching and recreation programs. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 41, 372-385. Sacli, F., & Demirhan. G. (2008). Determination and comparison of critical thinking levels of students in physical education teacher training program. Hacettepe Journal of Sport Sciences, 19(2), 92-110. Sengul, C. & Ustundag, T. (2009). Critical thinking disposition levels of physics teachers and state of critical thinking in classroom activities. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 36, 237-248.
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