27 SES 01 B, Parallel Paper Session
Parallel Paper Session
The aim of this study is to explore what it means to know a specific movement, a so called ‘househop’, i.e. a rotation initiated on the ground and fulfilled in the air. The knowing of ’househop’ (including the capability to perform a househop) is an example of a subject content in Physical Education. Despite the fact that PE has a tradition of being a ‘practical’ subject, practical forms of knowing such as for example bodily awareness and capability to move (e.g. jumping, running or dancing) does not, neither for teachers nor pupils, seem to be a main issue of learning in PE (Tinning, 2010; Redelius et al, 2009,). In the context of learning motor skills the knowing is often explicated in terms of measurable outcomes, for example in length, height or time (Renshaw, Davies & Savelsbergh, 2010), not in terms of what there is to know.
A necessary condition for learning is to discern what there is to learn (Marton & Pang, 2006,). This study gives an example of how to explicate what there is to be known as well as specific ways of knowing (Carlgren, 2007) when developing the capability of performing a ‘househop’. To make it possible for the students to develop the capability to perform a househop the teaching must be designed so that the students can experience and discern so called critical aspects of a househop.
Knowledge concerning the meaning of specific learning objects (something that is expected to be known by the students as well as specific ways of knowing it) is generated in so called Learning Studies ( Marton & Pang, 2006, Marton & Lo, 2011, Carlgren, 2012). The object of learning in a Learning Study can be described as a triadic phenomenon. There is something to be known, a specific kind of knowing to be developed and someone who knows, a knower (Carlgren, 2011). There is nothing known if there is no knower knowing it. This triadic phenomenon is transactional (Dewey & Bentley, 1949).
Rather than seeing capability to move as a practical form of knowledge it can be conceptualized as intelligent actions not necessarily entailing the double operation of considering and executing (Ryle, 1949,2009). The knowing is not restricted to cognitive understanding and knowing how to perform a movement is not restricted to physical processes. It includes skills as well as what is often referred to as ‘tacit knowing’ (Polanyi, 1969; Johannessen,1988).
Carlgren, I. (2011) Kunnande-kunskap-kunnighet I: Lindström, L., Lindberg, V. & Petttersson, A. (red) Pedagogisk Bedömning. Att dokumentera, bedöma och utveckla kunskap [Pedagogic assessment. Documenting, assessing and developing knowledge]. HLS förlag 2011 Carlgren, I. (2007) The content of schooling – from knowledge and subject matter to knowledge formation and subject specific ways of knowing. In Forsberg, Eva (Ed.), (2007): Curriculum Theory Revisited. Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy: Research Reports 2007:10. Uppsala University. Carlgren, I. (2012) The Learning Study as an approach for ‘clinical’ subject matter didactic research. International Journal of Lesson and Learning Study, Forthcoming Issue 2, May 2012. Dewey, J., Bentley, J. (1949 ) Knowing and the known Johannessen, K. (1988) The concept of practice in Wittgenstein’s later philosophy. Inquiry 31 Marton, F. & Ling, L. M. (2007) Learning from “The Learning Study”. Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning [Journal of Research in Teacher Education] 1, 31-44. Lo, M. L. and Marton, F. (2011) The Learning Study as an approach for ‘clinical’ subject matter didactic research. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, Vol 1, Issue 1 Marton, F. & Pang, M. F. (2006). On some necessary conditions of learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(2) Marton, F.(1981). Phenomenography – describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science vol. 10 Polanyi, M.(1969) Knowing and Being. Essays by Michael Polanyi. Marjorie Greene (Ed) The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637. Routledge & Kegan Ltd., London Redelius, K., Fagrell, B., and Larsson, H.( 2009). Symbolic capital in physical education and health. To do, to be or to know? That is the gendered question, Sport, Education and Society 14, no. 2: 245-260 Renshaw,I. Davids, K. and Savelsbergh, G. (2010) Motor Learning in practice. A constraints-led approach. Routledge Ryle, G. (1949, 2009) The concept of mind. New York, Routledge
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