08 SES 11 A, Democracy and Participation in an ESD perspective
Parallel Paper Session
Action is described as an important aim in learning for sustainability in Eco-Schools’ and formal curricula in Sweden (Keep Sweden Tidy, 2012; SOU, 2004), as well as in European and International policy document for ESD (EU, 2010; UNESCO, 2002; UNESCO, 2004). The active choice of action and critical evaluation of action strategies has been highlighted as a most significant ingredient in the desired capability developed through ESD (Jensen & Schnack, 1997; Vare & Scott, 2007). Similarly, the British network of Eco-schools stresses the importance of developing critical decision taking. This is important in the role as consumer, employee and employer and as a citizen in a democratic society, nationally and globally (Keep Britain Tidy, n.d.).
In the educational research related to environmental education, several perspectives on action have been highlighted, e.g., that action are dealt with as a means for achieving learning about the environment but also as a means for learning for the environment (Hart and Nolan, 1999). Further, action has been differentiated from activity and behavior by the definition that actions are intentional and addressed to the solution of a problem (Jensen & Schnack, 1997). From an educational perspective, a part in the developing of the students action capability is that they get an understanding of different action alternatives. How appropriate different action alternatives are perceived to deal with in teaching may, however, vary among teachers.
In this study, our first objective is to describe how Eco-School teachers and Eco-Schools instructors rate 16 different sustainability promoting actions regarding appropriateness to deal with them in teaching. The second, and main objective is to describe and discuss the informants’ reasoning in relation to this rating from the question: what do they talk about when they justify the ratings? The preliminary results from the qualitative analysis show 30 aspects that can be divided into three groups: aspects of sustainability consequences, aspects of teaching considerations, and, cultural and social aspects. The results will be discussed from a norm theory perspective (e.g., Blossing, 2003; Wickenberg 2004) focusing the teacher relation to the complexity of considerations of the teaching situation, scientific knowledge, as well as different norms at school, at homes and in society.
Blossing, U. (2003) Skolförbättring – en skola för alla. In G. Berg & H.-Å. Scherp (eds) Skolutvecklingens många ansikten. Stockholm: Myndigheten för skolutveckling.European Union, C327. EU (2010). Council conclusions of 19 november on education for sustainable development (2010/C 327/05). Notices from Euopean Union Institutions, B., Offices and Agencies. Official Journal of the Hart, P. & Nolan, K. (1999) A critical analysis of reserach in environmental education, Studies in Science Education, 34, 1-69. Jensen, B. B. & Schnack, K. (1997). The Action Competence Approach in Environmental Education. Environmental Education Research, 3, (2), 163-178. Keep Britain Tidy (n.d.) http://www.eco-schools.org.uk/nine-topics/global-perspectives.aspx# 2011-06-25 Keep Sweden Tidy (2011). http://www.hsr.se/gronflagg 2011-06-28 Siegel, S. (1956) Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. Tokyo: McGraw-Hill. SOU (2004). Att lära för hållbar utveckling: Betänkande av Kommittén för utbildning för hållbar utveckling (No. 2004:104). Stockholm. UNESCO (2002). Education for Sustainability From Rio to Johannesburg: Lessons learnt from a decade of commitment. Paris: The International Work Programme on Education, Public Awareness and Sustainability of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. UNESCO (2004). United Nations Decade for Sustainable Development 2005-2014. Draft International Implementation Scheme. www.gdrc.org/sustdev/un-desd/implementation-scheme.pdf (2008-10-16) Vare, P. & Scott, W. (2007). Learning for a Change: Exploring the Relationship Between Education and Sustainable Development. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development , 191-198. Wickenberg, P. (2004) Norm supporting structures – in environmental education and education for sustainable development. In P. Wickenberg, Axelsson, A., Fritzén, L., Helldén, G & Öhman, J. (eds) Learning to change our world? Swedish research on education and sustainable development. Lund: Studentlitteratur.
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