23 SES 12 A, The State of Play of Active Citizenship in Europe: Concepts, Policy, Engagement and the effects of the Economic Crises
Citizenship and citizenship education relate to social and political changes in a country. For citizenship issues as social cohesion, immigration, the role of politics, and the relationship of the country with Europe are important issues. In Dutch society there have been strong changes in the direction of nationalism, reducing immigration, a distance between citizens and politicians, and less trust in Europe. These changes are visible in international studies. The Dutch policy response on citizenship and citizenship education shows a more liberal communitarian concept of citizenship education. It has placed a greater focus on voluntary work and in citizenship education on in-service learning. Another focus is on the Dutch culture, tradition, and history. However in citizenship education policy there is less clarity as there are fewer consensuses on the goals. In Dutch education the influence of religious and social groups is very strong and a balance between a national and civic governance of citizenship policy is not yet found. New challenges for citizenship education are also found in entrepreneurship. Contributing to the economic part is increasingly seen as part of citizenship. The paper will combine theoretical analysis, policy analysis, analysis of practice and research on outcomes of citizenship education.
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