04 SES 06 B, Trends in Placement in Special Schools
In this paper, we study the trends in Finnish special education at the comprehensive compulsory school level in 2001-2010. During these years, special education faced a quite considerable expansion as also students with milder disabilities were could be transferred to special education based on the substantial changes in Basic Education Act 1998 (e.g. Jahnukainen, 2011). Contrary to earlier studies (Kivinen & Kivirauma, 1989; Kivirauma 2002; Jahnukainen, 2003; 2006; Lintuvuori 2010), our main focus in this paper is on the differences between different cohorts and grade levels and in finding out if they have been treated unequally when it comes to providing them with special education. In addition to analyzing the participation rate of different cohorts by grade level we also study how the cohorts differ by place of provision of special education, by teaching arrangements and by the ground for decision of acceptance or transfer to special education.
Jahnukainen, M. 2003. Laman lapset? Peruskoulussa erityisopetusta saaneiden oppilaiden osuuksien tarkastelua vuodesta 1987 vuoteen 2001 [Children of the economic depression? Special education students at compulsory schools from 1987 until 2001]. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka [The Finnish Journal of Social Policy] 68, (5), 501–507. Jahnukainen, M. 2006. Erityisopetuksen tarve ja muutos [The need for and changes in special needs education]. Teoksessa Karvonen, S. (toim.) Onko sukupuolella väliä? Hyvinvointi, terveys, pojat ja tytöt. [Does the gender matter? Well-being, health, boys and girls.] Nuorten elinolot vuosikirja [Year book of the living conditions of young people] Nuorisotutkimusverkosto, Nuorisoasiain neuvottelukunta & Stakes, 119 – 131. Jahnukainen, M. 2011. Different strategies, different outcomes? The history and trends of the inclusive and special education in Alberta (Canada) and in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 55 (5), 489-502. Kivinen, O. & Kivirauma, J. 1989. Special education as a part of the school system and as a classification system: The case of Finland in the twentieth century. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 33 (5), 67–78. Kivirauma, J. 2002. Erityisopetuksen historialliset kehityslinjat Suomessa (The historical development of special education in Finland. In M. Jahnukainen (Ed.) Lasten erityishuolto ja -opetus Suomessa. 12. täydennetty painos. Juva: Lastensuojelun keskusliitto, 23–33. Lintuvuori, M. 2010. Erityisopetus muutoksen kynnyksellä. Tilastollinen kuvaus erityisopetusjärjestelmästä ja sen määrällisestä kehityksestä 1970-luvun lopulta vuoteen 2008 (Finnish Special Education in Change – A statistical description of the Finnish special education system from late 1970s to present). University of Helsinki. Unpublished MA Thesis.
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