14 SES 09 B, Family Education and Parenting - Parent Involvement in Schooling
What is the difference in parent involvement as described by Epstein (parenting, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community) between different groups after partialing out the effect of the parent education level, parent income, and age in rural South Carolina?
Parent involvement is defined as asking about homework, contacting a teacher, and also, watching every single move a student makes (Knisely, 2011). Desimone (1999) explained that an effective level of parent involvement may lead to increased student academic achievement, student self-esteem, social leisure activities, and create a safe school environment, while decreasing absenteeism, and behavioral problems.
In the last two decades, educational researchers have been interested in the positive effects parental involvement can have on students’ academic achievement and success. So, education policies support parent involvement, and partnerships between home, schools, and the community. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) required schools, districts, and states to organize programs of parental involvement and to communicate with parents and the public about students’ achievement and the quality of schools (Epstein, 2005). Epstein (2005), in her summary of NCLB, explained that states, districts, and schools must develop and implement policies and plans to reach all families in order to provide a more equal and effective education. Further, NCLB tasked states, districts, and schools with developing school, family, and community partnerships.
Parents’ demographic characteristics have been found to be significantly related to parent involvement in schooling. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the US parents’ perceptions of their involvement in schooling and parent demographic characteristics at elementary grades in rural areas of South Carolina. In this study, the researchers used the parent involvement model that was developed by Epstein using her model of parent involvement as six types: (1) parenting, (2) communicating, (3) volunteering, (4) learning at home, (5) decision making, and (6) collaborating with the community. Finally, this study explored the potential differences among Epstein’s six aspects of parent involvement and rural parenting practices.
Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological theory that focused on these interactions between the environment and the individual, was used as a theoretical framework. Brofenbrenner’s bioecological theory is a lifespan theory that includes divided five-systems with the child at the center and having interactions with these systems (Bronfenbrenner, 1977).
Moreover, Epstein’s overlapping spheres theory explained that children have interactions with their families, their schools, and their communities (Epstein, 1995). Epstein (1995) said that families, schools, and communities have direct or indirect interactions children and these interactions affect the child’s academic achievement and success. The significance of this study is to examine the perceptions of parents in the US in rural settings regarding effective parental involvement with elementary school students based on Epstein’s (1995) six types of parental involvement.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513 - 531. Crosnoe, R. (2001). Academic orientation and parental involvement in education during high school. Sociology of Education, 74, 210-230. Desimone, L. (1999). Linking parent involvement with student achievement: Do race and income matter? The Journal of Educational Research, 93(1), 11-30. Edwards, R., & David, M. (1997). Where are the children in home–school relations? Notes towards a research agenda. Children & Society, 11(3), 194-200. Epstein, J. L. (1995). School/family/community partnerships: Caring for the children we share. The Phi Delta Kappan, 76(9), 701-712. Epstein, J. L. (2005). Attainable goals? The spirit and letter of the No Child Left Behind Act on parental involvement. Sociology of Education, 78(2), 179-182. Knisely, K. (2011). Literature Review: How much does parental involvement really affect the student’s success? Retrieved from http://kniselymtt.pbworks.com/f/EDCI6300_kknisely_LiteratureReview.pdf
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