22 SES 03 B, Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Higher Education
In recent years, assessing outcomes in higher education is an area of interest (Cheng, 2001; Bowman & Hill, 2011). There are different approaches to determine the quality of higher education institutions such as examining quantitative characteristics of institutions (graduation rates, faculty characteristics); using student self-report of learning and development; and focusing on outcomes (academic success, quality of life after college) (Carini, Kuh, & Klein, 2006). Outcome assessment is helpful for student learning and growth by providing better institutional environment (Cheng, 2001). Among the factors that directly or indirectly affect student success and gains include gender (Astin, 1993; Kuh, 2003); accommodation (Pascarella&Terenzini, 2005; NSSE, 2006); perceived English level (Dafei, 2007); learning strategies (Duch, Gron& Allen, 2001; Kuh, 2003; Kuh et al., 2005); self-esteem (Bowman & Hill, 2011); motivation (Alderman, 2004); study skills (Schweinle, Reisetter, & Stokes, 2009); peer interactions (Astin, 1993; Koljatic&Kuh, 2001; Kuh et al., 2005); relationship between faculty members (Astin, 1993; Koljatic&Kuh, 2001; Kuh, 2003; Kuh et al., 2005; Schweinle, Reisetter, & Stokes, 2009); library usage (Ren, 2000; Whitmire, 2011); usage of technology (Laird &Kuh, 2005; Kuh& Vesper, 2001); campus facilities (Kuh et al., 2005); institutional characteristics (Toutkoushian& Smart, 2001; Ryan, 2005) and student engagement (Kuh, 2001; 2003; Handelsman, Briggs, Sullivan, &Towler, 2005).
Many research findings showed that student engagement is a determinant of student success (Errey& Wood, 2011; Handelsman, Briggs, Sullivan, &Towler, 2005; Kuh, 2001, 2009; Pike &Kuh, 2005; Zhao &Kuh, 2004), and student engagement and desirable learning outcomes and grades are strongly related (Carini, Kuh& Klein, 2006; Errey& Wood, 2011; NSSE, 2006).
Literature also shows that student gains are influenced by variety of aspects such as institutional characteristics, interpersonal skills, academic learning, motivation and student background (Toutkoushian& Smart, 2001). In the present study, student success, more specifically students’ grade point average and gains from college, were used as outcome measures. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test a model which examines the student success through assessing association between grades (GPA), student gains (academic, socio-cultural, personal), and student engagement.
Alderman, M. K. (2004). Motivation for achievement: Possibilities for teaching and learning. (2nd Ed). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bowman, N. A. & Hill, H. L. (2011). Measuring how college affects students: Social desirability and other potential biases in college student self-reported gains. New Directions For Institutional Research, 150, 73-85. Carini, R. M., Kuh, G. D. & Klein, S. P. (2006). Student Engagement and student learning: Testing and linkages. Research in Higher Education, 47(1), 1-32. Cheng, D. X. (2001). Assessing student collegiate experience: Where so we begin? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 26, 525-538. Handelsman, M. M., Briggs, W. L., Sullivan, N., & Towler, A. (2005). A measure of college student course engagement. The Journal of Educational Research, 98, 184-191. Koljatic, M. & Kuh, G. D. (2001). A longitudinal assessment of college student engagement in good practices in undergraduate education. Higher Education, 42, 351-371. Kuh, G. D. (2001). Assessing what really matters to student learning: Inside the National Survey of Student Engagement. Change, 33(3), 10-17. Kuh, G. D., & Vesper, N. (2001). Do computer enhance or detract from student learning? Research In higher Education, 42, 87-102. Kuh, G. D. (2009). The National Survey of Student Engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New Directions for Institutional Research, 2009, 5-20. Pascarella, E .T., & Terenzini, P. T. (2005). How College Affects Students: A Third Decade of Research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pike, G. R. & Kuh, G. D. (2005). A typology of student engagement for American colleges and universities. Research In Higher Education, 46, 185-209. Toutkoushian, R. K. & Smart, J. C. (2001). Do institutional characteristics affects students gains from college. The Review of Higher Education, 25, 39-61. Whitmire, E. (2011). The relationship between undergraduates’ background characteristics and college experiences and their academic library use. College & Research Libraries, 62, 528-540.
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