26 SES 04 B, Principal Programs and Leadership Development
This paper contributes in debates of ways of measuring quality and effects from investments in school leadership education and development. The background for this interest is that most studies of effects from leadership education and development are measuring only if the participants are satisfied (Kirkpatrick 1998; Watkins et al. 2011). There is a need for studies measuring the effects on several levels; experience of learning, impact on the school organization, and the results when it comes to improvement in pupils learning. The purpose of the paper is to explore how the Dimensions of Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) (Marsick & Watkins, 2003) and the Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES) (Federici & Skaalvik, 2011) can be employed to measure change from school leadership education and development. The relationship between experience of change at the individual and organizational level after participation in programs of leadership education and development will be discussed.
Learning culture is a concept that reflects organizational behavior from the perspective of learning and development (Watkins & Marsick, 1997). Watkins and Marsick developed a theory called organizational learning, which defines seven dimensions that are important in promoting on-going change and learning in a culture (Marsick & Watkins, 2003). Principal self-efficacy reflects a kind of leadership self-efficacy which is associated with a certain level of confidence in one’s own knowledge, skills and abilities in association with leading others (Hannah et al. 2008). In the present study, principal self-efficacy is defined as the principals’ judgments of their capabilities to plan, organize and execute tasks and deal with their relationship to people and institutions in their environment (Federici & Skaalvik 2011).
Hannah, S. T., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., & Harms, P. D. (2008). Leadership efficacy: Review and future directions. Leadership Quarterly, 19(6), 669-692. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2008.09.007 Federici, R. A., & Skaalvik, E. M. (2011). Principal self-efficacy and work engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale. Social Psychology of Education, 14(4), 575-600. doi: 10.1007/s11218-011-9160-4 Kirkpatrick, D. (1998). Evaluating Training Programs: the Four Level (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. Marsick, V. J., & Watkins, K. E. (2003). Demonstrating the value of an organization’s learning culture: The dimensions of the learning organization questionnaire. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 5(2), 132-151. Watkins, K. E., & Marsick, V. J. (1997). Dimensions of learning organization (DLOQ). Warwick, RI: Partners for the Learning Organization. Watkins, K. E., Lyso, I. H. & deMarris, K. (2011). Evaluating Executive Leadership Development: A Theory of Change Approach. Advances in Developing Human Resources. DOI: 10.1177/1523422311415643
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