04 SES 05 B, Labelling
After Germany’s ratification of the UN Disability Rights Convention, in 2009, the country is subject to the implementation of an inclusive educational system. The fundamental goal of the convention is “the full development of human potential and sense of dignity and self-worth, and the strengthening of respect for human rights, fundamental freedoms and human diversity” (UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Article 24 (1a)). Consequently, this implies the mission to enable people with special needs to participate in a free society (see UN Convention Article 24 (1c)). In the educational remit this is emphasised by the claim that „persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability” (see UN Convention Article 24 (2a)). For the participating countries, from this follows that heterogeneity must be considered in the context of school development and, moreover, teaching development.
A comparison of empirical results shows that, from a social perspective, most children with special needs in learning are not integrated in school and class in the desired manner (see Dumke/Schäfer 1993, Huber 2006; Wocken 1987). As a study on stigmatisation of children with special needs in learning shows, the stigma of "stupidity" has no detrimental effect on these children, but is perceived by the other children nevertheless. Thus, own and foreign perception of children with special needs do not correspond with each other (see Wocken, 1983). Social integration is therefore not promoted by the status "special school student" and the expectation of the standard of "sufficient intelligence". In order to tackle this performance difference of students in practice, literature suggests a change in teaching in order to give all students the support required to ensure effective education (see UN Disability Convention Articel 24 (2d)). In this context, open teaching methods and best-practice examples are presented as a solution for handling heterogeneity in practice. One reason is the strong possibility of individualisation in such tuition (see Stangier 2012; Metzger/Weigl 2012; Stähling/Wenders 2012). However, it has not yet been confirmed whether this conception is correct.
The present research project addresses this issue by analysing the concepts of social integration, stigmatisation and teaching development. On the basis of the empirical findings mentioned above, this examination follows the perspective that a child with special needs is stigmatised and socially excluded. Within the framework of an analytical case study, it is assessed which instructional settings and teaching elements exist in a German inclusive elementary school and whether a relationship between teaching settings, social inclusion and stigmatisation can be depicted. The qualitative design aims at obtaining first hints on an inclusive practice in primary schools which prevents social exclusion and stigmatisation of minorities. Furthermore, it remains to expose which practices of learning together lead to a de-stigmatisation of children with and without disabilities in mixed ability classes (see Markowetz 2000). The process of integration to inclusive education then connects "[...] cognitive, affective and conative components of settings [...]" (Markowetz 2000, p.116), and is thus is able to avoid social prejudices.
Dumke, Dieter/Schäfer, Georg (1993): Entwicklung behinderter und nichtbehinderter Schüler in Integrationsklassen. Einstellungen, soziale Beziehungen, Persönlichkeitsmerkmale und Schulleistungen. Weinheim: Deutscher Studien-Verlag. Huber, Christian (2006): Soziale Integration in der Schule?! Eine empirische Untersuchung zur sozialen Integration von Schülern mit sonderpädagogischem Förderbedarf im Gemeinsamen Unterricht. Marburg: Tectum Verlag. Markowetz, Reinhard (2000): Soziale Integration, Identität und Entstigmatisierung. Gemeinsam Leben 8, S.112 – 120. UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/conventionfull.shtml (open 31.01.2013) Wocken, Hans (1983): Am Rande der Normalität. Untersuchungen zum Selbst- und Gesellschaftsbild von Sonderschülern. Heidelberg: Schindele. Wocken, Hans (1987): Integrationsklassen in Hamburg. Erfahrungen, Untersuchungen, Anregungen. Solms-Oberbiel: JarickOberbiel.
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