10 SES 11 C, Perspectives on Competence Development in Teacher Education
In teacher education research, the dominating professionalization paradigm presumes that in principle, professional teacher behaviour can be learned in adequate teacher education programmes (see Cochran-Smith and Fries, 2001). In contrast, the personality paradigm, assuming that stable personality characteristics widely determine academic and professional success (see Foerster, 2008) has been less popular in teacher education research in recent years. In an attempt to bridge the gap between these two seemingly opposed paradigms, specifically in this paper, we investigate whether, and if so, to what extent, students’ (positive) longitudinal development in domains of practical pedagogical competences can be predicted by students’ trait characteristics, such as the Big Five personality traits, self efficacy and personal competence.
In the KOSTA project, student teachers’ competences in the domains of “teaching”, “education”, “assessment” and “innovation” were evaluated twice in the course of the university-based phase of initial teacher education following two compulsory field experiences by means of students’ self-reports. The theoretical framework for monitoring specifically these four competence domains has been provided by a collection of standards for teacher training issued by a national authority on educational matters in Germany (KMK [Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany], 2011). The competence concept underlying this research strongly refers to Weinert (2001) and Oser (2013), emphasizing that (academic) knowledge is merely a necessary, but by no means sufficient precondition in forming out a competence. A (professional) competence itself is understood as the ability to perform correctly and successfully in varying professional situations. Thus, it is essential for evaluating competences to provide or create situations, in which elements pertaining to the respective competences may become observable in manifest behaviour.
In evaluating their pedagogical competences within the KOSTA context, students rated the frequency with which they acted in accordance with the standards within the field experience they had just completed. Of note, this evaluation of the student teachers’ competences does not exclusively refer to what is learned inside the practical field experiences. Rather, the field experiences provide the possibility to apply in practise what has been learned in theory in the prior studies at the university. Thus, in the sense of creating a ‘hybrid space’ (Zeichner, 2010), the evaluation procedure itself strives to link the theoretical knowledge obtained in campus courses to the proper behaviour in the field experiences.
In recent years, the overall need for quality assurance in teacher education has been widely acknowledged, but implemented or planned procedures of external and internal evaluation of teacher education programmes vary considerably between the EU member states (Eurydice, 2006). Implementing common evaluation standards on an official level would at least require (a) roughly comparable structures of teacher education and (b) a political will concerning the arrangement on a common scientific background. As these requirements would inevitably involve slow-going political processes, it seems questionable whether there will (ever) be a ‘common’ evaluation system on a European level. An alternative, however, might be the adaptation of common evaluation procedures arranged on an informal level amongst teacher education institutions in different European countries. As, in our eyes, our approach of longitudinally evaluating student teachers’ pedagogical competences on the basis of their behaviour in practical field experiences, covers at least one facet of system outcomes, we encourage teacher education institutions across Europe to use or adapt our instruments and design in order to create a common database enabling system comparisons across institutions and countries.
Brandstätter, H., & Mayr, J. (1994). Die "Lehrer-Persönlichkeits-Adjektivskalen" (LPA): Ein Instrument zur Selbsteinschätzung berufsrelevanter Persönlichkeitsmerkmale. In J. Mayr (Ed.), Studien zur Bildungsforschung & Bildungspolitik: Vol. 11. Lehrer/in werden (pp. 231–247). Innsbruck: Österr. Studien-Verl. Cochran-Smith, M., & Fries, M. K. (2001). Sticks, stones, and ideology: The discourse of reform in teacher education. Educational Researcher, 30(8), 3–15. Eurydice. (2006). Quality assurance in teacher education in Europe. Brussels: Eurydice. Foerster, F. (2008). Personale Voraussetzungen von Grundschullehramtsstudierenden: Eine Untersuchung zur prognostischen Relevanz von Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen für den Studien- und Berufserfolg. Münster: Waxmann. Frey, A. (2008). Kompetenzstrukturen von Studierenden in der ersten und zweiten Phase der Lehrerbildung.: Eine nationale und internationale Standortbestimmung. Landau: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik. KMK [Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany], (2011). The Education System in the Federal Republic of Germany 2010/2011 (Excerpt). Retrieved from http://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/doc/Dokumentation/Bildungswesen_en_pdfs/teachers.pdf Oser, F. (2013). Vorwort: Auf der Suche nach Ausbildungskompetenzen. In F. Oser, T. Bauder, P. Salzmann, & S. Heinzer (Eds.), Ohne Kompetenz keine Qualität. Entwickeln und Einschätzen von Kompetenzprofilen bei Lehrpersonen und Berufsbildungsverantwortlichen (pp. 7–8). Kempten: Julius Klinkhardt. Schneider, C. (2013). El desarrollo de las competencias pedagógicas de estudiantes del profesorado en fáses prácticas y el papel de la formación universitaria. In S. C. Arredondo (Ed.), Reflexiones, Análisis y Propuestas sobre la Formación del Profesorado de Educación Secundaria. (pp. 226–228). Madrid: Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia. Schneider, C., & Bodensohn, R. (2014, in press). Core competences of students in university teacher education and their longitudinal development: First results of the KOSTA study. In K.-H. Arnold, A. Gröschner, & T. Hascher (Eds.), Pedagogical Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Theoretical Foundations, Programmes, Processes, and Effects. Münster: Waxmann. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (Eds.). (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen: Dokumentation der Psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen. Berlin: R. Schwarzer. Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/self/skalendoku_selbstwirksame_schulen.pdf Weinert, F. E. (2001). Concept of competence: A conceptual clarification. In D. S. Rychen & L. H. Salganik (Eds.), Defining and selecting key competencies (pp. 45–65). Ashland, OH: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. Zeichner, K. (2010). Rethinking the connections between campus courses and field experiences in college- and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(1-2), 89–99. doi:10.1177/0022487109347671
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