03 SES 14 A, Curriculum Change and the Key Competences
Our study proposal is developed in a framework of European debates around what are the skills which must be developed and teach by the educational systems in Europe in the digital age (Kress, 2006). In a retrospective view we first find argumentations around the skills: “priority should be given to the development of vocational and social skills to facilitate workers´ adaptation to labour market developments” (European Commission, 1997).
In December 2006 with the European Recommendation on Key Competences (Official Journal L 394 of 30.12.2006), digital competence was acknowledge as one of the 8 key competences for Lifelong Learning by the European Union. This competence was define as “digital competence involves the confident and critical use of information society technology (IST) and thus basic skills in information and communication technology (ICT)”
Thereafter the international community began working on a common framework in order to draw the main acting lines about media literacy (UNESCO, 2011; Ala-Mutka, 2011; Ferrari, 2012, 2013). Although the guidelines are being worked in an international framework each country must manage to find its own ways to achieve these changes in the educational systems.
Furthermore we can not avoid mention the social context in which everything said is being developed: Network society (Bindé and Matsuura, 2005; Castells and Cardoso, 2005; Cohen, 2009). The key to interpreting this new state of affairs lies in the two crucial processes that emerged during final years of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st century: “digitalization”, described by Nicholas Negroponte (1996) and “convergence culture” a new perspective of facts exposed by Henry Jenkins (2008).
In this context the digital competence is related to the management of the amount of information generated every day in the Internet (Wolton, 2000) and the ability to work in an environment that is dominated by the information and communication technologies (Pérez Tornero and Varis, 2010).
This digital competence must be worked and thought at schools, and also must be included in the curricula. The key point in our research is how deeply is being developed this competence in the Primary Education curriculum in the Spanish educational system.
This research will try to merge a twofold objective:
- Analyse and assess the current curriculum in Primary Education to find how the media literacy is being introduced and how the digital competence is improved (Deursen and Dijk, 2010; Diehm and Lupto, 2012).
- Contribute in the development of a new subject to be included in the curriculum in order to teach specific contents about media literacy (Ferrari, 2013).
Ala-Mutka, K. (2011) Mapping digital Competence: Towards a Conceptual Understanding. IPTS. European Commission. Bindé, J., and Matsuura, K. (2005). Towards knowledge societies (Vol. 1). UNESCO. Buckingham, D. (2003). Media education. Literacy, learning and contemporary culture. Cambridge: Polity Press. Burn, A. and Durran, J. (2007). Media Literacy in Schools: Practise, productions and progression. London: SAGE. Castells, M. and Cardoso, G. (2005). The network society from Knowledge to Policy. Washington, DC. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/digitalcenter/research/pdfs/JF_NetworkSociety.pdf Cohen, D. (2009). Three lectures on post-industrial society. Cambridge: MIT Press. Deursen, A. van y Dijk, J. van (2010). Measuring Internet Skills. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 26, 891-916. Diehm, R.-A., and Lupton, M. (2012). Approaches to Learning Information Literacy: A Phenomenographic Study. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(4), 217–225. European Commission. (2001). The concrete future objectives of education systems, COM 59 final, Brussels. European Recommendation on key competences (2006), Official Journal of the European Union, L 394 del 18 de diciembre de 2006. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1md051i Ferrari, A. (2012). Digital competence in Practice: An analysis of frameworks. IPTS. European Commission. Ferrari, A. (2013). DIGCOMP: A Framework for Developing and Understanding Digital Competence in Europe. IPTS. European Commission. Jenkins, H. (2008). Convergence culture. Where the old and new media collide. New York: New York University. Kress, G. (2006). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge. Negroponte, N. (1996). Ser digital. México: Océano. Pahl, K. And Rowsell, J. (2012). Literacy and Education. Understanding the new literacy studies in the classroom, Second Edition. London: SAGE. Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (2005). Measuring ICT. The Global Status Of ICT Indicators. New York: UN ICT Task Force. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1fxWjwm Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development (2008b). Report of the Partnership on Measuring Information and Communication Technologies for Development: information and communications technology statistics. New York: UN Economic and Social Council. Retrieved from: http://bit.ly/1mYpnj6 Pérez-Tornero, J. and Varis, T. (2010). Media Literacy and New Humanism. Moscow: UNESCO. Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Rychen, D.S. y Salganik, L. H. (Eds.) (2003) Key competences for a successful life and a well-functioning society. Germany: Hogrefe and Huber. UNESCO (2011). Media and Information Literacy Curriculum for Teachers. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001929/192971e.pdf Westera, W. (2013). The digital turn. How the Internet transforms our existence. Indiana: AuthorHouse. Wolton, D. (2000). Surviving the Internet. Barcelona: Gedisa.
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