03 SES 08 B, Inquiry Learning and Scientific Reasoning
The world has been changing fast and countries try to adapt these huge changes in every area by education of their youth. The curriculum is dynamic and reformed frequently in most of the countries. Turkish Ministry of Education underwent a curriculum revision in 2013 in every area including elementary and secondary school science curriculum. Argumentation which is one of the contemporary areas of science education is included in elementary and secondary school science curriculum for the first time. This is a positive change, because numerous research studies confirmed that argumentation is effective in science learning (e.g. Driver, Newton, & Osborne, 2000; Erduran, Simon & Osborne, 2004; Jime´nez-Aleixandre, Rodrı´guez & Duschl 2000; Jiménez-Aleixandre & Erduran 2007).
When we hear the word of “argumentation” first, it evokes arguing with something with someone in our minds. In other words we perceive a dialogic atmosphere with two or more people no matter where it is realizing. In science education literature, Jiménez-Aleixandre, and Erduran (2007) defined argumentation as a connection between claims and data through justifications or the evaluation of knowledge claims in light of evidence, either empirical or theoretical. They also clarified why should we touch on argumentation in the science classroom with some advantages; (1) supporting cognitive and meta-cognitive processes in the learning of sciences, (2) enhancing the development of communicative skills and promoting critical thinking, (3) enabling scientific literacy and empowering students to talk and write in the language of science, (4) developing epistemology of students in the evaluation of knowledge claims, and making the enculturation of science possible, and (5) promoting scientific reasoning. Because of the failure of teachers or curriculum in reflecting the aspects of argumentation (Bricker & Bell, 2008), lots of students could not utilize from these benefits. Thus, the analysis of the curriculum with respect to argumentation elements is critical and would shade light on how much the curriculum reflects argumentation elements. Because of this need, the researchers wondered how argumentation is reflected in Turkish elementary and secondary school science curriculum. Following research question and sub-questions were explored;
- How are argumentation elements reflected in learning outcomes of the elementary and secondary school science curriculum?
- How are argumentation elements distributed across grades?
- How are argumentation elements distributed across learning domains?
Bricker, L. A., & Bell, P. (2008). Conceptualizations of argumentation from science studies and the learning sciences and their implications for the practices of science education. Science Education, 92, 473-498. Driver, R., Newton, P., & Osborne, J. (2000). Establishing the norms of scientific argumentation in classrooms. Science Education, 84, 287–312. Erduran, S., Simon, S. & Osborne, J. (2004) TAPping into argumentation: Developments in the application of Toulmin's Argument Pattern for studying science discourse. Science Education, 88:915–933. Kuhn, D. (1991). The skills of argument. New York: Cambridge University Press. Jime´nez-Aleixandre, M.P., Rodrı´guez, A.B., & Duschl, R.A. (2000). ‘‘Doing the lesson’’ or ‘‘doing science:’’ Argument in high school genetics. Science Education, 84, 757 – 792. Jiménez-Aleixandre, M. P., & Erduran, S. (2007). Argumentation in science education: An overview. In S. Erduran & M. P. Jiménez-Aleixandre (Eds.), Argumentation in science education: Perspectives from classroom-based research (pp.3-27). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
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