14 SES 04 B, School-Related Transitions Within a Life Course Perspective II
Positive Behaviour Interventions and Support (PBIS) originated in the United States (OSEP Center on PBIS) and is a prevention framework that enables schools to design a tiered system of support using context specific data and evidenced-based practices (Bradshaw, Mitchell & Leaf, 2010; Simonsen & Sugai, 2013; Sugai & Horner, 2009). This school-wide systems approach is designed to support both academic and social learning outcomes in the school setting.
Social learning and behaviour theories can provide insights into why certain behaviours are initiated, maintained or altered and what might influence a change in behaviour. As Kaur (2010) explains, many variables influence how a child is socialised, the values and beliefs of the parents, the cultural background, peer group, education and media. So we begin to see that behaviours, acceptable or not, have complex beginnings and are continually influenced by the journey of life.
In 2005 PBIS was introduced to consenting schools across New South Wales, and since more widely throughout Australia. In the school context PBIS systems enable a consistent approach to data collection, the development of plans, resources and strategies that enhance the capacity of schools to establish effective environments in which teaching and learning occur.
A priority of public education in Australia is to provide young people with the foundations for lifelong learning, enabling them to become capable, confident and informed citizens who can make a positive contribution to our society (Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians, 2008). The Education Act (1990) states that educating children is a shared responsibility between parents and educators, with parents given opportunity to participate in the education of their children where family and community values are promoted. However differences between family values and expectations and those of educational institutions, sometimes makes it difficult for parents and children to engage positively with the school and the learning. Current and longstanding research recognises that parents are significantly influential in the academic and social development of their children (Brock & Edmunds, 2010; Minke & Anderson, 2005; Nir, 2009; Wong, 2012). Therefore the inclusion of parents in the implementation processes of PBIS is imperative, and needs to be explicitly understood to maximise the effectiveness of the interventions, teaching, learning and the well-being of students which are fundamental to this approach.
This presentation will focus on the transition of two schools to a whole school approach to behaviour management through PBIS, and the manner in which each school involved parents in this process. The purpose of the research on which this presentation is based, was to explicate teachers’ and parents’ perspectives of the effectiveness of their current behaviour support system. Thus how, and to what extent parents have been involved in the school’s decision-making processes, and what might be needed to improve the effectiveness of their current system. This critical analysis of teacher and parent understandings in relation to the behaviour support systems operating within their schools, adds to an area in which research is limited. The findings and considerations presented here will inform future guiding principles for working with children and families in educational contexts and impact on how schools might involve parents more broadly than within the bounds of PBIS.
Australian Education Act, (1990). Retrieved from www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/ Bradshaw, C. P., Mitchell, M. M., & Leaf, P. J. (2010). Examining the effects of school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports on student outcomes. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 12(3), 133-148. doi: 10.1177/1098300709334798 Brock, S., & Edmunds, A. L. (2010). Parental Involvement: Barriers and Opportunities. EAF Journal, 21(1), 48-I. Hays, D., & Singh, A. (2012). Qualitative inquiry in clinical and educational settings. New York: Guilford. Kaur, P. (2010). Examine the Diverse Theories of Attitude Development. International Journal of Educational Administration, 2(3), 615-619. Kavale, S. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oakes. Calif: Sage Publications. Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians, (2008). Australian Government. Department of Education and Training. Retrieved from https://www.education.gov.au/melbourne-declaration-educational-goals-young-people Minke, K. M., & Anderson, K. J. (2005). Family-School Collaboration and Positive Behavior Support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(3), 181-185. Nir, A. (2009). Centralization and school empowerment from rhetoric to practice. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. OSEP Center on PBIS. (2004). School-wide positive behaviour support implementers' blueprint and self assessment. Eugene OR: University of Oregon: Retrieved from http://www.pbis.org Simonsen, B., & Sugai, G. (2013). PBIS in Alternative Education Settings: Positive Support for Youth with High-Risk Behavior. Education & Treatment of Children, 36(3), 3-14. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2009). Responsiveness-to-intervention and school-wide positive behavior supports: Integration of multi-tiered system approaches. Exceptionality, 17(4), 223-237. doi: 10.1080/09362830903235375 Wong, P. L. (2012). Parents' perspectives of the home-school interrelationship: A study of two Hong Kong-Australian families. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(4), 59-67.
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