04 SES 06 B, Coaching, Professional Development and Inclusive Education
Teaching is a challenging profession, and many teachers cope with stress and burnout symptoms (Evers, Tomic, & Brouwers, 2004). Teaching students with externalising behaviour problems can be even more challenging. Teachers of students with externalising behaviour problems experience stress and find it difficult to be emotionally supportive to these students. Teachers also have difficulty to relate to these student and to implement adequate strategies to teach these students (Spilt & Koomen, 2009). For teachers a conflictual relationship may lead to stress, burn-out symptoms and absenteeism (Mashburn, Hamre, Pianta, & Downer 2006; Spilt, Koomen, & Thijs, 2011). Because of new legislation that promotes inclusive learning environments and places higher demands on teachers, supporting teachers is important. In other countries in Europe and the world teachers’ professionalism is also a key issue.
In the Netherlands 18 percent of all teachers has burn-out symptoms, in comparison with 14 percent in ICT and 11 percent in health care (Bierings & Mol, 2012). Burn-out symptoms are associated with a low sense of self-efficacy in classroom management (Brouwers & Tomic, 2000). Teachers’ sense of self-efficacy is the perception of teachers about their capacity to stimulate learning and engagement of students (Shaughnessy, 2004). Teachers’ sense of self-efficacy affects the academic outcomes of students. A low sense of self-efficacy results in lower academic achievement of students (Ross, 1992).
The student-teacher relationship can positively impact teachers’ feelings of competence and burnout. A close relationship between teacher and student prevents teachers from leaving their job (Spilt, Koomen, & Thijs, 2011). Moreover, a close teacher-student relationship benefits students’ academic achievement, reduces externalising behaviour and increases social competence (Roorda, Koomen, Spilt, & Oort, 2013). Thus, to reduce burn-out symptoms and improve teachers’ sense of self-efficacy a close relationship with students, especially with students with externalizing behaviour, is important.
To improve the teacher-student relationship we developed an intervention called Multi-Method Coaching. MMC is partly based on the conceptual model for teacher-student relationships by Pianta, Hamre and Stuhlman (2003). They describe four components of the teacher-student relationship: teacher and student features (gender, temperament and personality), perceptions and beliefs about the relationship, information exchange processes or interaction patterns, and external influences. It is important to focus on mental representation of the relationship and interaction patterns between teacher and student. An intervention focussed on these components is most likely to improve the teacher student relationship, teachers’ sense of self efficacy and reduce teachers’ burn-out symptoms. MMC consist of three different methods; relationship-focused reflection program (RFRP-program), developed by Spilt, Koomen, Thijs & Van der Leij (2012), Video Coaching (Fukkink, Trienekens, & Kramer, 2011), and Synchronous Video Coaching (Coninx, Kreijns, & Jochems, 2012). Effects of this intervention are studied in the Key2Teach Study.
The main aim of the Key2Teach study is to investigate whether Multi-Method Coaching (MMC) of teachers has a positive effect on teacher-student relationships, teacher and student outcomes. The focus for the presentation will be on the methodology and the results of MMC on teacher-student relationship. The main research question is: Does MMC have a positive effect on teachers’ sense of self efficacy and teachers’ burn-out symptoms?
Bierings, H. & Mol. M. (2012). Burn-out: De rol van werk en zorg. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. Brouwers, A. & Tomic, W. (2000). A longitudinal study of teacher burnout and perceived self-efficacy in classroom management. Teacher and teacher education, 16, 239-253. Coninx, N., Kreijns, K., & Jochems, W. (2012). The use of keywords for delivering immediate performance feedback on teacher competence development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 1-19. Evers, W. J. G. , Tomic, W., & Brouwers, . (2004). Brunout among teachers: Students’and teachers’ perceptions compared. School Psychology International, 25, 131-148. Fukkink, R. G., Trienekes, N., & Kramer, L. J. C. (2011). Video Feedback in Education and Training: Putting Learning in the Picture. Educational Psychological Review, 23, 45-63. Mashburn, A. J., Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C., & Downer, J. T. (2006). Teacher and classroom characteristics associated with teachers’ ratings of prekindergartners’ Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Stuhlman, M. (2003). Relationships between teachers and children. In W. Reynolds & G. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of Psychology (pp. 199-234). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. M., Thijs, J. T., & Oort, F. J. (2013). Interpersonal behaviors and complementarity in interactions between teachers and kindergartners with a variety of externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Journal of School Psychology, 51, 143-158. Ross, J. A. (1992). Teacher efficacy and the effect of coaching on student achievement. Canadian Journal of Education, 17(1), 51−65. doi:10.2307/1495395 Schaufeli, W. B. & Dierendonck, D. (2000).UBOS Utrechtse Burnout Schaal, Handleiding. Swets test Publishers, Lisse. Shaughnessy, M. F. (2004). An Interview With Anita Woolfolk: The Educational Psychology of Teacher Efficacy. Educational Psychology Review, 16 (2), 153-176. Tschannen-Moran, M. & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2001). Teacher efficacy: capturing an elusive construct. Teacher and Teacher Education, 17, 783-805. Spilt, J. L., & Koomen, H. M. Y. (2009). Widening the view on teacher-child relationships: Teachers’ narratives concerning disruptive versus non-disruptive children. School Psychology Review, 38, 86-101. Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., & Thijs, J. M. (2011). Teacher wellbeing: The importance of teacher-student relationships. Educational Psychology Review, 23, 457-477. Spilt, J. L., Koomen, H. M. Y.,Thijs, J. M. & Leij, A, van der (2012). Supporting teachers’ relationships with disruptive children: the potential of relationship-focused reflection. Attachment and Human Development, 14, 305-318.
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