04 SES 10 A JS, Education for Refugees; The Refugee and Migrant Challenge for Education and Educational Research (Part 2)
Joint Paper Session NW 04 and NW 20 continued from 04 SES 09 A JS
The joint schooling of children with and without disabilities in inclusive classrooms has become daily routine in many educational systems in Europe over the last decades. As part of this development various studies have been conducted regarding the academic development of students in inclusive classrooms (Gebhardt, Schwab, Krammer, & Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2012), the social and emotional integration of students in inclusive classrooms (Guralnick, Neville, Hammond, & Connor, 2007; Gebhardt, Schwab, Krammer, & Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2012; Schwab, Gebhardt, Krammer, & Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2014, Schwab, 2014), teaching developments, like collaborative teaching etc.
Other studies have focused on the attitudes towards inclusive schooling. Attitudes of the general population as well as attitudes of special populations (such as regular teachers or special needs teachers) have been profoundly investigated. In summary, the results of these studies have shown that differences existed in the attitude towards the inclusive schooling of children with disabilities regarding the kind of disability (Gebhardt, Schwab, Reicher, Ellmeier, Gmeiner, Rossmann, & Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2011). In fact, both teachers and other groups assumed that it is easier and more likely to successfully integrate children with physical disabilities in an inclusive classroom than children identified with behavioral disorders (Schwab, Gebhardt, Ederer-Fick & Gasteiger-Klicpera, 2012, de Boer, Pijl & Minnaert, 2011 ).
Inclusive classrooms, however, do not only refer to including children with disabilities. The concept of inclusion aims at guaranteeing a system prepared for different individuals and their unique requirements. Hence, also the integration of refugee and migrant children in mainstream classes has been investigated. Taylor and Sidhu (2011), for example, investigated schooling practices and conditions as well as the social and emotional integration of refugee and migrant students. Others examined psychopathological issues refugee children might face (Hodes, 1998) or the relationship between school performance and emotional problems in refugee children (Rousseau, Drapeau, & Corin, 1996).
Until now, however, there is a dearth of research concerning the attitude towards the inclusion of refugee children identified with different forms of disabilities in general classrooms. Only some research exits which investigates the relation between the attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities and the relation to racism and sexism (Akrami, Ekehammar, Claesson, & Sonnander, 2011). Multiple discriminations, in particular the intersectionality of different dimensions of discrimination, have been examined more profoundly. Intersections and multiple discriminations have been found for black woman or homosexual people with low social status and/or educational disadvantages, for example (Crenshaw, 1993; Supik, 2009).
Therefore, this piece of research aims at filling this gap and investigates the attitude of the Austrian population towards the inclusive schooling of Austrian children with disabilities as well as refugee children with and without disabilities. More precisely, it will be investigated whether refugee children with disabilities are affected by multiple discriminations in regard to joint schooling or not. The attitude of the general population towards the inclusive schooling of Austrian children with disabilities and refugee children with disabilities will be compared. Finally, conditional factors of multiple discriminations will be investigated. The following two research questions are posed:
(i). Are refugee children identified with physical disabilities or behavioral disorders affected by multiple discrimination in regard to schooling in inclusive classrooms?
(ii.) If refugee children identified with physical disabilities or behavioral disorders are affected by multiple discriminations, what are the conditional factors that promote / predict these multiple discriminations?
Akrami, N., Ekehammer, B., Claesson, M. & Sonnander, K. (2011). Classical and modern prejudice: Attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities. In: Research in Developmental Disabilities. 27. 605-617. de Boer, A., Pijl, S.J. & Minnaert, A. (2011). Regular primary schoolteachers' attitudes towards inclusive education: A review of the literature. In: International Journal of Inclusive Education.15. 331-353. DOI: 10.1080/13603110903030089 Crenshaw, K. (1993). Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence Against Woman of Color. Retrieved from: http://socialdifference.columbia.edu/files/socialdiff/projects/Article__Mapping_the_Margins_by_Kimblere_Crenshaw.pdf [12.01.2016] Gebhardt, M., Schwab, S., Reicher, H., Ellmeier, B., Gmeiner, S., Rossmann, P., & Gasteiger-Klicpera, B. (2011). Einstellungen von LehrerInnen zur schulischen Integration von Kindern mit einem sonderpädagogischen Förderbedarf in Österreich. In: Empirische Sonderpädagogik. 4. 275-290. Gebhardt, M., Schwab, S., Krammer, M., & Gasteiger-Klicpera, B. (2012). Achievement and integration of students with and without Special Educational Needs (SEN) in the fifth grade. Journal of Special Education and Rehabilitation. 13(3-4). 7-19. Guralnick, M. J., Neville , B., Hammond, M. A., & Connor, R. T. (2007). The friendships of young children with developmental delays. A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 28(1), S. 4–79. Hodes, M. (1998): Refugee Children: May Need a Lot of Psychiatric Help. In: British Medical Journal 316 (7134), 793-794. Rousseau, C., Drapeau, A., Corin, E. (1996). School Performance and emotional problems in refugee children. In: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 66:1. 239–251. Schwab, S. (2014). Schulische Integration, soziale Partizipation und emotionales Wohlbefinden in der Schule. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Längschnittstudie. LIT:Wien Schwab, S., Gebhardt, M., Krammer, M., & Gasteiger-Klicpera, B. (2014). Linking self-rated social inclusion to social behaviour. An empirical study of students with and without special education needs in secondary schools. European Journal of Special Needs Education. 30:1. 1-14. Schwab, S., Gebhardt, M., Ederer-Fick, E. & Gasteiger-Klicpera, B. (2012). An examination of public opinion in Austria towards inclusion. Development of the ‘Attitudes Towards Inclusion Scale’ – ATIS. In: European Journal of Special Needs Education. 27:3. 355-371. DOI: 10.1080/08856257.2012.691231 Stöber, J. (2001). The Social Desirability Scale-17 (SDS-17): Convergent validity, discriminant validity, and relationship with age. In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment. 17. 222-232. DOI: 10.1027//1015-57126.96.36.199 Supik, L. (2009). Mehrfachdiskriminierung als Intersektionalität verschiedener Diskriminierungsdimensionen. In: Tangram23. 6/2009. Eidgenössische Kommission gegen Rassismus EKR: Zürich.http://www.ekr.admin.ch/pdf/Tangram_23.pdf [12.01.2016] Taylor, S. C. & Sidhu, R. K. (2011) Supporting refugee students in schools : what constitutes inclusive education? In: International Journal of Inclusive Education. 16:1. 39-56. DOI:10.1080/13603110903560085
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