17 SES 03 A, Internationalization (Part 1)
Papser Session to be continued in 17 SES 04
After WWII all western industrial states but also the international organization such as UNESCO, OECD, and European Council etc. established institutions that were in charge of educational research and planning. Scientific experts became important in dealing with the identification of social problems; scientific knowledge on the other hand was seen as tool for social progress. New forms of expertise where data and scientific knowledge played a more significant role emerged and were mixed with bureaucratic routines. The scientific explosion of the 1960s was a transnational phenomenon with local formations (Rohstock 2015; Tröhler 2014; Landsheere 1986; Brückweh 2012; Raphael 1996). As answer or as part of the international movement towards research based improvement in education, more than 40 research institutions for educational documentation, research or planning were founded in Switzerland between 1965 and 1975 (Gretler 2001). Mostly, they were part of the cantonal educational administration. The stuff of the research institutions was faced with a new task between research and administration. As part of the administration they had to produce directly usable knowledge, as researchers they had to meet the methodological and theoretical standards of modern science. The question is, how the actors managed to deal with this two requirements and how they handled the period of almost simultaneously occurring research and planning resignation (O’Hara 2007; van Laak 2008). First results show that the intercantonal and international networks were very important during crisis with regard to content and institutional legitimation. Scientific networking was part of the boundary work between science and administration that help the researchers to profile them as actors’ in-between. The research question of this paper asks about the influence of the international and intercantonal scientific network on local research institutions. Who was part of the network? What were important practices within the network? And what benefits were taken out of the network? Were scientific networks helpful in legitimizing the own practice?
To answer these questions two research institutions, that were founded 1970, are analyzed: The Pädagogische Abteilung (PA) in Zurich and the Institut romand de recherche et documentation pédagogique (IRDP), a cooperation of the French speaking cantons in Neuchâtel. These two institutions are chosen firstly because they represent the German and French speaking part of Switzerland and secondly because the archives of both institutions are open, available and promise a good insight into the institutionalization process and the administrational practices.
Brückweh, Kerstin, Hrsg. 2012. Engineering society: the role of the human and social sciences in modern societies, 1880-1980. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Gretler, Armin. 2001. «Entwicklungen der universitären und ausseruniversitären Bildungsforschung - Gewichtsverschiebungen in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts». In Die Geschichte der Bildungsforschungsstellen in der Schweiz 1960-2000, 311–23. Neuchârel: irdp. Grunder, Hans-Ulrich. 2013. Netzwerke in bildungshistorischer Perspektive. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt. Landsheere, Gilbert de. 1986. La recherche en éducation dans le monde. 1re éd. Pédagogie d’aujourd’hui. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. O’Hara, Glen. 2007. From dreams to disillusionment: economic and social planning in 1960s Britain. Basingstoke [England] ; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Raadschelders, Jos C. N., Hrsg. 2012. Handbook of administrative history. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. Raphael, Lutz. 1996. «Die Verwissenschaftlichung des Sozialen als methodische und konzeptionelle Herausforderung für eine Sozialgeschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts». Geschichte und Gesellschaft, Nr. 22. Jahrg., Heft 2: 165–93. Rohstock, Anne. 2015. «Le développement d’une recherche scientifique en education. Une idée internationale et son appropriation locale au moment de la Guerre froide». In Les Sciences de l’education: le temps d’une renaissance scientifique (1945-1973), 25–43. Rennes: Presse universitaires. Tröhler, Daniel. 2014. «Change Management in the Governance of Schooling: The Rise of Experts, Planners, and Statistics in the Early OECD». Teachers College Record, Nr. 116: 1–26. van, Laak, Dirk. 2008. «Planung, Geschichte und Gegenwart des Vorgriffs auf die Zukunft» Geschichte und Gesellschaft, Nr. 34: 305–326.
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