ERG SES H 01, Challenges in Education
The burnout syndrome is not entirely unknown within school walls. Not only teachers are exposed but the same can be said about students like many international studies point to it (Walburg, 2014). Due to the regular experience of negative impulses students fatigue emotionally, they display a cynical attitude towards school and they go through a continuous feeling of incompetence when it comes to their tasks. This long-lasting phlegmatic state takes a negative effect on their motivation, on vision of their future and moreover they can experience psychosomatic symptoms that can even lead to depression (Kunos, 2015). Our assumption is that digital storytelling (DST) could relieve students' burnout symptoms or even end them.
Therapeutic effects of DST are confirmed by two international projects.
The Cambridge-program Patient Voices incorporated it in its e-learning curriculum in order to increase the quality of its healthcare services (Lambert, 2013). The initial goal of their educational program was to make healthcare more benign with personal stories of their patients in addition to the usual statistics and diagrams. Since these stories pointed to trauma, nurses and doctors could come face-to-face with the defects of the system. Self-therapy was thought to have surfaced as a likely positive "side effect" .
Amy Hill (Lambert, 2013) had prevention of agression in society in mind when started Silence Speaks, a 2002 project that involved topics of human rights and public health with the aid of DST.
The trauma that happened on institutional, community or family level, happened on an individual level, yet similarities could be established which helped forming a group-identity and thus assume the effect on one another.
In Hungary, Szemán and the Anthropolis Association uses the procedure for the therapy of individuals traumatized by modern day slavery (Szemán, 2015). Szemán's interpretation is that DST is related to art therapy, technical media and various empowerment procedures and regards it as an effective instrument while it also increases self esteem because the creators experience their technical competence and at the same time, through sharing their incidents, the level of acceptance towards themselves also increases within the group. The stories help developing a positive vision of the future by placing them in wider perspective.
Our present study points out what the therapeutic effects on school students' burnout syndrome entail:
1, Students can restructure their perspective on time (ZTPI, 2008)
With the aid of the narrative structure students can reanimate events by their correct cronological order and tend to think in terms of past, present and future in connection to one another and realize in a coherent fassion what factors led to the current situation.
2, DST's effect on problem solving is proven (Hung, Hwang, Huang, 2012). The method, via mental and manual activity, affords student with the sense of "I can solve the problem".
3, Throughout the procedure students discover their abilities and capacities.
- Do these digital stories (DS) connect students with their past, present and future?
- Do students feel the positive effect of how they relate to their situation by the end of the process?
- Do students feel more competent with regards to their situation after creating the DST?
1, Student diagnosed with burnout syndrome will reach higher marks in the categories of „past-negative” and „present-fatalistic” on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.
2, DST will help ease or end the symptoms of burnout syndrome by developing a sense of other time perspectives, like „past-positive”, „present hedonistic” or/and „future oriented”.
Throughout the creative process students will point to the prologue of their burnout in a structured narrative, identify their present situation and foresee their future options.
Hung, C., Hwang, G.-J., & Huang, I. (2012). A Project-based Digital Storytelling Approach for Improving Students' Learning Motivation, Problem-Solving Competence and Learning Achievement. Educational Technology and Society, 368-379. Kunos, N. (2015). School-Related Burnout among Hungarian High School Students and Responsibility of Teachers in Prevention – a New Aspect of Teachers’ Competences. ECER. Lambert, J. (2013). Digital Storytelling, Capturing Lives, Creating Community. New York. Murberg, T. A., & Bru, E. (2003). School-related stress and psychosomatic symptoms among Norwegian adolescents. School Psychology International, 317-332. Salmela-Aro, K. K. (2008). Does School Matter? The Role of School Context in Adolescents’ School-Related Burnout. European Psychologist, vol. 13(1). Salmela-Aro, K. K. (2009). School Burnout Inventory (SBI) reliability and validity. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, n25, v48–57. Szemán, D. (2015). A digitális történetmesélés (DST) alkalmazási lehetőségei a modernkori rabszolgaság következtében traumatizált emberekkel folytatott segítőmunka keretein belül. Budapest: Anthropolis Egyesület. Walburg, V. (2014). Burnout among High School Students: A Literature Review. . Children and Youth Services Review. Zimbardo, P., & Boyd, J. (2008). The Time Paradox. Washington: Atria Books
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