ERG SES H 01, Challenges in Education
Picciano (2014) argues that the 4th wave of online education and blended learning has arrived, which is characterized by leveraging externally developed MOOC content together with a variety of new tools to create more personalized and effective blended learning experiences for learners. In comparison to the familiar concept of blended learning, MOOC-based blended learning it requires learners to be more self-regulated to succeed in MOOC-based learning environments (Milligan, et al. 2013). Motivation is one of key aspects that underlies self-regulated learning (Kuo et al., 2013). It has been proved to be a key factor that influences student learning and achievement in traditional and online learning environments alike.
Motivation is considered a multidimensional construct (Vallerand, 1997). A useful conceptual framework that helps us gain a complete understanding of motivation is to deal with it from intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Vallerand, et al. 1989). Intrinsic motivation can be further decomposed into intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things and experience stimulation (Vallerand et al., 1989). Intrinsic motivation is to know is closely related to goal orientation, a construct of specific importance to learning. Goal orientation describes the reasons for doing a task. Generally, there are two types of goals: mastery goal and performance goal (Rawsthorne & Elliot, 1999). Intrinsic motivation to know is similar to mastery goal. Mastery goal concerns learning or mastering the task. Research indicates that mastery goals are positively related to adaptive cognitive and self-regulatory strategy use as well as actual achievement in college classroom.
Extrinsic motivation describes doing an activity for outcomes not directly derived from the activity (Ryan & Deci, 2000). In examining learner motivation in a technology-enhanced learning context, we need to take into account the influence of the technology adopted. Curiosity in new features of e-learning system can foster motivation to learn (Egan & Gibb, 1997). In this study, extrinsic goal is conceptualized as advantages related to the MOOCs-based blended learning as a new learning mode.
In order to fully understand human behavior, Dec and Ryan (1985) proposed an amotivation construct to be added to the intrinsic and extrinsic dichotomy. Amotivation describes the state when people have no intention to act (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
Some studies tried to understand motivation and behavior of MOOC learners. For example, Wang and Baker(2015) explored the motivation difference between MOOC completers and non-completers. They found that both MOOC completers and non-completers initially started out with strong mastery goals and completers showed more interest in the course content and non-completers were more attracted by MOOCs as a type of learning experience.
Research objective and questions
The current study took a person-centered approach to explore motivation and learning strategy use of a sample of university students in MOOC-based blended courses. Using cluster analysis on a combination of goal orientations and general metacognitive self-regulation, we tried to see what kind of learner SRL profiles existed within this student sample and how each cluster group differed in their goal orientation and use of metacognitive self-regulation. Then learner profiles were further explored to explain student online grades and continuance intention. The specific research questions:
(1). What kind of learner profiles can be identified among students in MOOC-based blended courses?
(2). How do learners with different profiles differ in their online scores and intention to participate in MOOC-based blended course in the future?
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