04 SES 13 B, Challenges in Inclusive Education in Secondary Schools – a Global Perspective
The Italian school system is regarded as one of the most inclusive oriented system in Europe for two reasons. Firstly, all pupils aged between 6 and 14 attend primary and lower secondary school under the same roof. In upper secondary school several options are offered to the students, who can freely choose which one they attend. Secondly, all students, also those with disabilities, have the right to attend mainstream schools from kindergarten to university. This system has led to some positive outcomes. Three will be shortly presented. The 40-years-old inclusive orientation has led to a general positive attitude towards the integration of pupils with disabilities among teachers (Balboni & Pedrabissi, 2000; Treellle, Caritas, & Fondazione Agnelli, 2011; Canevaro et al., 2011). The school career of pupils with disabilities has lengthened, also thanks to a more frequent attendance to upper secondary schools, especially in vocational training (Demo, 2011). Finally, the full inclusion of pupils with disabilities in mainstream classes is connected with higher learning and socialization results for themselves and for the class in the teachers’ perception (Ianes, Demo & Zambotti, 2013). The contemporary discourse in inclusive education is focused on the development of strategies that can overcome some critical aspects that have emerged. Firstly, the existing linear connection between medical diagnosis and allocation of additional resources for differentiation could be overcome by the adoption of a context related way of conceptualizing needs and resources, as in the ICF Model (WHO 2001). Secondly, the prevalent frontal teaching method needs to be changed towards more active, collaborative and differentiated methods that prevent the risk of micro-exclusions (Ianes, Demo, & Zambotti, 2013; Ianes & Demo 2015). To conclude, the sometimes problematic support teacher role needs to be conceptualized in order to realize quality co-teaching (Ianes, 2015).
Balboni, G.. & Pedrabissi., L. (2000). Attitudes of Italian Teachers and Parents Toward School Inclusion of Students with Mental Retardation. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 148–159 Canevaro, A., D’Alonzo, L., Ianes, D., & Caldin, R. (2011). L’Integrazione scolastica nella percezione degli insegnanti.Trento: Erickson. Demo, H. (2011). Integrazione scolastica und Lebensqualität der Menschen mit Beeinträchtigung. Ergebnisse einer Studie zu Schulkarriere der Menschen mit Beeinträchtigungen in Italien und ihre Auswirkungen auf das Erwachsenenleben. In U. Carle, K. Bräu, & I. Kunze (Hrsg.), Umgang mit Heterogenität – Das Bildungswesen in Südtirol als Anstoß für schulpädagogische Diskussionen (pp.127-140). Opladen: Budrich-Verlag. Ianes D. (2015). L’evoluzione dell’insegnante di sostegno, second edition, Trento: Erickson. Ianes, D., Demo, H., & Zambotti, F. (2013). Forty years of inclusion in Italian schools: Teachers’ perception, International Journal for Inclusive Education. DOI:10.1080/13603116.2013.802030. Ianes D., & Demo H. (2015). Strategien einer langjährigen Inklusionspraxis in der Sekundarschule in Italien, in: Biewer G., Böhm T., & Schütz S. (Eds.) Inklusive Pädagogik in der Sekundarstufe. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. Treellle, Caritas, & Fondazione G. Agnelli. (2011). Gli alunni con disabilità nella scuola italiana: bilancio e proposte. Trento: Erickson. WHO (2001). ICF-International Classification of Human Functioning, Disability and Health. Geneve: WHO
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