14 SES 01 A, Migrant Parents' Perspectives, Engagement and Community Partnership
Child-rearing practices have been studied from different theoretical positions and perspectives. On the one hand, there is a discussion on the conceptualization and operationalization of practices, styles, parenting strategies, on their variety and the consequences on a child's development and life chances (Baumrind, 1967, 1971; Darling & Steinberg, 1993; Lareau, 2003, 2011; Spera, 2005). On the other hand, the researchers discuss the reasons for the existing variety of child-rearing practices, styles, approaches in terms of class (Lareau, 2002, 2003, 2011; Weininger & Lareau, 2009), ethnic and national characteristics (Kremer-Sadlik & Fatigante, 2015; Kremer-Sadlik, Izquierdo, & Fatigante, 2010; Lee & Kao, 2009), structural constraints (Bennett, Lutz, & Jayaram, 2012; Chin & Phillips, 2004).
A large contribution to this debate on the variety and determinants of the practices has been made by the research conducted by Lareau, who distinguishes two child-rearing approaches: "concerted cultivation”, which is peculiar to middle-class parents and “accomplishment of natural growth”, employed by parents from poor and working class families (Lareau, 2003, 2011). Implementation of the concerted cultivation approach suggests that parents consider the development of a child through organized activities as an important component of child-rearing, while children from families which implement the accomplishment of the natural growth approach are mostly included in unstructured leisure activities.
Bennett and colleagues explain differences in the organized activities of children by structural constraints faced by working-class parents (Bennett et al., 2012). Comparative research of middle-class parents’ practices and attitudes in the United States and Italy indicated differences in the parental approaches to being involved in their children’s education, in their attitudes to children’s extracurricular activities, performance at school and to other aspects of their education (Kremer-Sadlik & Fatigante, 2015; Kremer-Sadlik et al., 2010).
The research of Diana Baumrind plays a crucial role in psychological studies of parental practices (Baumrind, 1967, 1971). She studied American middle-class families and identified parenting styles, based on two dimensions, called responsiveness and demandingness (Baumrind, 2005). Demandingness reflects the desire of the parents to integrate the children into society, to socialize them, whereas responsiveness refers to the promotion by the parents of the children's individuality, their desires.
The view on the conceptualization is offered by the integrative model of Darling and Steinberg (1993). They distinguish the concept of “parenting styles” and “parenting practices”. They define parenting practices such as “behaviors defined by specific content and socialization goals” (Darling, Steinberg, 1993: 492) and parenting style as “a constellation of attitudes toward the child that are communicated to the child and create an emotional climate in which the parent's behaviors are expressed” (Darling & Steinberg, 1993: 493).
In this study, I will use the concept of “child-rearing practices" or “parenting practices” in the sense that it was suggested by Darling and Steinberg’s defining practices. I will use “child-rearing approach” or "child-rearing strategies” for describing approaches proposed by Lareau. I will use the concept of parenting styles to refer to the behavioral aspects of parenting, indicated by Baumrind. This study aims to examine the impact of migration on child-rearing practices, but also to explain it in a broader methodological context by studying child-rearing styles and approaches. In a previous study, I focused on the class distinctions of the child-rearing strategies of migrant women and concluded that class differences in the structured activities of children are largely determined by structural factors (Akifyeva, 2016). In this study, on the contrary, I focused on the migration specifics of child-rearing by women with migration experience across class, carrying out a comparative study of Russian-speaking women living in Spain and Russia to reveal the migration specificity of child rearing.
Akifyeva, R. (2016). Children’s participation in structured activities in the context of the child-rearing strategies of Russian-speaking women: Class and migration status. Working Papers Centre for German and European Studies, WP 2016-01, 1–15. URL: http://www.zdes.spbu.ru/assets/files/WP_Akifyeva_1.pdf Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. In Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–88. Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4(1p2), 1–103. Baumrind, D. (2005). Patterns of parental authority and adolescent autonomy. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2005(108), 61–69. Bennett, P. R., Lutz, A. C., & Jayaram, L. (2012). Beyond the Schoolyard: The Role of Parenting Logics, Financial Resources, and Social Institutions in the Social Class Gap in Structured Activity Participation. Sociology of Education, 85(2), 131–157. Chin, T., & Phillips, M. (2004). Social reproduction and child-rearing practices: Social class, children’s agency, and the summer activity gap. Sociology of Education, 77(July), 185–210. Darling, N., & Steinberg, L. (1993). Parenting style as Context: An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113(3), 487–496. Kremer-Sadlik, T., & Fatigante, M. (2015). Investing in children’s future: Cross-cultural perspectives and ideologies on parental involvement in education. Childhood, 22(1), 67–84. Kremer-Sadlik, T., Izquierdo, C., & Fatigante, M. (2010). Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents’ Attitudes toward Children’s Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 41(1), 35–54. Lareau, A. (2002). Invisible inequality: Social class and childrearing in black families and white families. American Sociological Review, 67, 747–776. Lareau, A. (2003). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life. Berkeley: University of California Press. Lareau, A. (2011). Unequal childhoods: Class, race, and family life (2nd Edition with an Update a Decade Later). Berkeley: University of California Press. Lee, E. M., & Kao, G. (2009). Less bang for the buck? Cultural capital and immigrant status effects on kindergarten academic outcomes. Poetics, 37(3), 201–226. Spera, C. (2005). A Review of the Relationship Among Parenting Practices, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent School Achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17(2), 125–146. Weininger, E. B., & Lareau, A. (2009). Paradoxical pathways: An ethnographic extension of Kohn’s findings on class and childrearing. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71(3), 680–695.
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