10 SES 04 C, Developing Teacher Competencies: The role of beliefs, values and goals
Although teachers’ competence in educational assessment has been named as a key feature for succeeding in the teaching profession (e.g. DeLuca, LaPointe-McEwan & Luhanga, 2016), it is addressed relatively incidentally in overall systematizations of teacher competences on an international scale (cf. European Commission, 2013). This is even more noteworthy as assessment, in an educational context, goes beyond the mere evaluation of pupils’ achievements and learning outcomes in a summative way. Inherently, teachers’ assessment activities also encompass providing feedback to pupils and, in consequence, enhancing the pupils’ learning process itself. ‘Assessment for Learning’ (e.g. Black, 2015) is a term underscoring the strong formative component of assessment activities in an educational context. The manifold and complex nature of assessment in education has recently been depicted in a cross-country review of respective standard collections (DeLuca et al., 2016).
The specific aim of this paper is to investigate whether selected personality traits, socio-demographic and biographic variables allow for a prediction of student teachers’ assessment competence and its development. Hereto, a sample of N = 931 student teachers at a German university was monitored in longitudinal research design. A potential benefit of the empirical identification of personal variables predicting competence may refer to individual career counselling for (future) teacher candidates either in a prospective or a formative way.
In Germany, binding standards for teacher education have been issued by the Standing Conference of Cultural Ministers (KMK, 2004/2014), the country’s highest level institution of policymakers in education. The KMK’s standards list competences teachers are supposed to possess upon completing teacher education (and which may be still be fostered in tertiary teacher education) in the four broad competence domains of “Teaching”, “Education”, “Assessment” and “Innovation”. In this framework, thus, assessment competence is granted a relatively prominent position including both, summative and formative aspects.
Systematizations of teachers’ competences in the form of standard catalogues may, however, only provide normative visions or outcome expectations of competences teachers are thought to possess or, in turn, student teachers are thought to develop during their teacher education. In order to evaluate the (desired) outcomes of teacher education structures, empirically “assessing the development of teachers’ competences, with tools that are aligned with the purpose and design of the teacher competence model being used in each system” (European Commission, 2013, p.34) is thus a necessary demand.
To meet this requirement specifically in the German teacher education context, student teachers’ competences in the domains of “Teaching”, “Education”, “Assessment” and “Innovation” (as proposed by the KMK’s standards) were evaluated in the KOSTA (acronym for Competence and Standard Orientation in Teacher Education) project. KOSTA’s longitudinal design included a questionnaire survey at the beginning of teacher education and two assessments of student teachers’ competence in the four domains during the university-based phase of initial teacher education. Each of the two assessments followed a compulsory in-school practicum which provided the basis of reflection upon the competences. Following the notion that the concrete situation inside the practicums exact student teachers’ competent behaviour, competence was assessed by self-ratings of the frequency with which behaviour in accordance with the standards was applied during the practicums. KOSTA ran from 2007 to 2013 and generated two independent databases (KOSTA I, N = 429 and KOSTA II, N = 931).
Black, P. (2015). Formative assessment: An optimistic but incomplete vision. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 22(1), 161–177. doi:10.1080/0969594X.2014.999643 DeLuca, C., LaPointe-McEwan, D., & Luhanga, U. (2016). Teacher assessment literacy: A review of international standards and measures. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 28(3), 251–272. doi:10.1007/s11092-015-9233-6 European Commission. (2013). Supporting teacher competence development for better learning outcomes. Strasbourg. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/ repository/education/policy/school/doc/teachercomp_en.pdf Frey, A. (2008). Kompetenzstrukturen von Studierenden in der ersten und zweiten Phase der Lehrerbildung.: Eine nationale und internationale Standortbestimmung. Landau: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik. KMK (Ständige Konferenz der Kultusminister der Länder in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland). (2004/2014). Standards für die Lehrerbildung: Bildungswissenschaften. Retrieved from http://www.kmk.org/fileadmin/Dateien/veroeffentlichungen_beschluesse/2004/2004_12_16-Standards-Lehrerbildung-Bildungswissenschaften.pdf Kuhl, J. (1994). Action versus state orientation: Psychometric properties of the Action Control Scale (ACS-90). In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and Personality. Action Versus State Orientation (pp. 47–59). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. McCrae, R. R., & John, O. P. (1992). An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications. Journal of Personality, 60(2), 175–215. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x Schneider, C., & Bodensohn, R. (2014). Core competences of students in university teacher education and their longitudinal development: First results of the KOSTA study. In K.-H. Arnold, A. Gröschner, & T. Hascher (Eds.), Pedagogical Field Experiences in Teacher Education: Theoretical Foundations, Programmes, Processes, and Effects (pp. 147–163). Münster: Waxmann. Schneider, C. & Bodensohn, R. (under review). Student teachers’ appraisal of the importance of assessment in teacher education and self-reports on the development of assessment competence. Schneider, C., Bodensohn, R., & Foerster, F. (2014, September). Does Personality Predict Student Teachers’ Longitudinal Competence Development?: Predicting Latent Change Within the KOSTA Project. Paper presented at the EERA/ECER conference, Porto, Portugal. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (Eds.). (1999). Skalen zur Erfassung von Lehrer- und Schülermerkmalen: Dokumentation der Psychometrischen Verfahren im Rahmen der Wissenschaftlichen Begleitung des Modellversuchs Selbstwirksame Schulen. Berlin: R. Schwarzer. Retrieved from http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~health/self/skalendoku_selbstwirksame_schulen.pdf
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