19 SES 04, Ethnography Accounting Identity Construction in Education
In the present article I try to problematize the tensions and identity conflicts existing in two indigenous Terena communities, being: Aldeia do Bananal and Aldeia do Limão Verde, from the city of Aquidauana, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The investigation starts from the question of the preservation of the Terena identity, trying to understand how, in these communities, and specifically the younger generations, they value the past and how they look to the future. At first, after a contextualization of the Terena people, a bibliographical incursion is carried out in order to map the concepts of identity, ethnicity, ethnic ties, race and memory in contemporary literature, particularly in anthropology and sociology. In a second moment, I contemplate the mobilization of these concepts in the field work already done in the two communities and in two schools. Field observations were made, using photographic collection, interviews and questionnaires. The different methodological instruments sought to broaden the understanding of the perception of what the students know and value of their ancestors, as well as the conflicts existing in their identification as indigenous Terena, the pride of their ethnicity, and what is intended for the future.
Arrange in three parts and a conclusion. In the introduction, it is intended to place the object of discussion that is the Terena identity, the tensions and the identity conflicts existing in two indigenous Terena communities. The first section in which the Terena people are contextualized, from their origin to their most striking moments, from their journey from Paraguay to Mato Grosso, the period of the Paraguayan War and the demarcation of their lands. In the second section, the concepts of identity, race, ethnicity, ethnic ties, and memory will be mapped from the authors Barth (1969), Rex (1987), Hall (1997) and Silva (2005). The third section seeks to bring these concepts to the specific discussion of the two communities under study, intersecting with the field work already done. In the conclusions of the article, we reflect on the concepts and results obtained. The research was carried out with 117 indigenous Terena students, trying to verify how these students perceive their identity and to collect data on tensions and conflicts with semi-structured guiding questions. The first to realize what he knows and values his ancestors, the second understanding that the culture of his people may disappear over time, we want to know the indigenous student does and thinks. As the city is relatively close to the community, we ask if there is any internal and external conflict (shame and / or bulling) in identifying yourself as indigenous Terena and if this prevents you from keeping your culture alive or who knows, if you still encourage it Plus their identification. To conclude, we question whether regardless of any fact unrelated to your tribe, you are proud of your ethnicity and what you want for the future.
ALMEIDA, Maria Emília de Castro e. A Raça em Antropologia. Separata da Revista da Faculdade de Ciências de Lisboa, 2ª série, C, Vol. XV, Fasc. 2º, págs 147 e 179. BITTENCOURT, Circe Maria; LADEIRA, Maria Elisa. A História do povo Terena. São Paulo: MEC-SEF-SUP: Centro de Trabalho Indigenista, 2000. CANDAU, Joël, Memória e identidade, São Paulo: Editora contexto, 2011. HALL, Stuart. A Identidade Cultural na Pós-Modernidade.11ª Ed., reimp. Rio de Janeiro: DP&A, 2011. LOPES, Carlos. Etnia, Estado e Relações de Poder na Guiné-Bissau. Lisboa, Portugal: Edições 70, 1982. SILVA, Tomaz Tadeu DA (org.), Identidade e Diferença, A perspectiva dos Estudos Culturais, 4ª edição, Editora Vozes, Petrópolis, 2005. STRAUSS, Claude Lévi. Raça e História. Editorial Presença, Lisboa, 2006. REX, John. Raça e Etnia. Temas Ciências Sociais, Editorial Estampa Lda, Lisboa, Portugal, 1987.
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